A an individual area network (PAN) is developed when two or an ext computers or cabinet phones interconnect to one one more wirelessly end a short range, commonly less than around 30feet.

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From: Electronics defined (Second Edition), 2018

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D. Finlay, in smart Bandage Technologies, 2016

7.6.1 an individual Area Networks

A an individual area network is a network concerned with the exchange of info in the vicinity the a person. Typically, this systems are wireless and also involve the transmission of data between devices such as smartphones, personal computers, tablet computer computers, etc. The objective of such a network is usually to allow either transmission of data or information between such tools or come server as the network that enables further up attach to the Internet. Developments in the area of personal Area Networks (PANs) are greatly overseen by the IEEE 802.15 working team <18>.


Manish Shrivastava, Donart A Ngarambe, in Proceedings native the international Conference on developments in Engineering and Technology, 2006

2.2 The an innovation Trends

Ubiquitous computer comprises a broad and dynamic spectrum the technologies. 2 of the most usual placeholders because that these devices are the an individual technologies and also smart environments.


Personal Area Network (PAN): it is one interconnection of personal technology devices to interact over a brief distance, i beg your pardon is less than 33 feet or 10 meters or in ~ the range of an separation, personal, instance person, frequently using some form of wireless technologies. Several of these modern technologies are:

Bluetooth technology: The idea behind Bluetooth is to embed a low cost transceiver chip in every device, do it feasible for wireless tools to be entirely synchronized there is no the user having to initiate any type of operation. The chips would connect over a formerly unused radio frequency at up to 2 Mbps. The overall goal of Bluetooth might be proclaimed as permitting ubiquitous connectivity between personal technology devices without the use of cabling as written in Mckeown (2003a).

High price W-PANs: as per traditional IEEE 802.15 TG3, launched in 2003, these innovations use higher power tools (8 dBm) than constant Bluetooth tools (0 dBm) come transmit data at a price of approximately 55 Mbps and also over a range of up to 55 m Ailisto et al (2003).

Low strength W-PANs: together per standard IEEE 802.15 TG4, these technologies are particularly useful because that handheld devices since energy intake for data transmission purposes, and costs, are extremely low. The variety of operation of approximately 75 m is higher than current Bluetooth applications, however the data transfer price is short (250 Kbps) Ailisto et al (2003).


BodyArea Network (BAN): Wireless body area networks interlink miscellaneous wearable computers and also can attach them to external networks and also exchange digital details using the electric conductivity that the human body together a data network. Advantages of BANs matches PANs room the short selection and the resulting lower risk of tapping and interference, and also low frequency operation, which leads to reduced system complexity. Technologies offered for wireless BANs encompass magnetic, capacitive, low-power far-field and infrared connections Raisinghani et al (2004).

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Sensors and Actuators: Sensors are vital in capturing physical information from the actual world. Different species of sensors are essential for different phenomena. These tools collect data around the real world and also pass it on to the computing infrastructure for permitting decision-making. They deserve to detect and measure mechanical phenomena of the user prefer movements, tilt angle, acceleration and direction. Actuators carry out the output direction native the digital civilization to the genuine world. These devices allow a computing environment to influence changes in the real world.