L> Vapor PressureVapor PressureThe Macroscopic ViewThe vapor press of a fluid is the equilibrium pressure of a vaporabove its fluid (or solid); the is, the press of the vapor resultingfrom evaporation of a fluid (or solid) above a sample of the fluid (orsolid) in a closed container. Examples:substancevapor press at 25oCdiethyl ether0.7 atmbromine0.3 atmethyl alcohol0.08 atmwater0.03 atmThe vapor push of a fluid varies with its temperature, asthe following graph mirrors for water. The heat on the graph reflects the cook temperature because that water.As the temperature of a fluid or solid increases its vapor pressurealso increases. Vice versa, vapor press decreases together the temperaturedecreases.The vapor push of a liquid deserve to be measure in a variety of ways. A straightforward measurement involves injecting a little of the liquid intoa closeup of the door flask connected to a manometer. Clickhere because that an illustration.The microscopic ViewWhen a hard or a fluid evaporates to a gas in a close up door container, themolecules can not escape.Some the the gas molecule will eventually strike the condensed step andcondense earlier into it.When the rate of condensation that the gas becomes same to the rate of evaporationof the fluid or solid, the quantity of gas, liquid and/or solid no longerchanges.The gas in the container is in equilibrium v the liquidor solid.Microscopic equilibrium between gas and also liquid. Note that the rate of evaporation of the fluid is same to the rate of condensation the the gas.Microscopic equilibrium between gas and also solid. Note that the rate of evaporation the the solid is same to the price of condensation of the gas.The pressure exerted through the gas in equilibrium with a hard or fluid ina close up door container in ~ a given temperature is called the vapor pressure.Factors That affect Vapor PressureSurface Area: the surface ar area of the heavy or liquid incontact v the gas has no result on the vapor pressure.Types of Molecules: the types of molecule that comprise asolid or liquid determine its vapor pressure. If the intermolecular forcesbetween molecule are:relatively strong, the vapor press will it is in relativelylow.relatively weak, the vapor pressure will it is in relativelyhigh. = C = O = Hethyl ether (C4H10O)Pvapor (25oC)= 520 torrThe relatively weak dipole-dipole forces and also London dispersion forces in between molecules outcomes in a much greater vapor pressure contrasted to ethyl alcohol.ethyl alcohol (C2H6O)Pvapor (25oC)= 75 torrAlthough dipole-dipole forces and also London dispersion forces also exist between ethyl alcohol molecules, the solid hydrogen bonding interactions room responsible because that the much lower vapor pressure contrasted to ethyl ether.Temperature: in ~ a greater temperature, an ext molecules have actually enoughenergy come escape indigenous the liquid or solid. In ~ a reduced temperature, under molecules have sufficientenergy come escape from the fluid or solid.Microscopic equilibrium in between gas and also liquid at low temperature.
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Note the small number of particles in the gas.Microscopic equilibrium between gas and also liquid at high temperature. Note the large number of corpuscle in the gas.