Spontaneous bsci-ch.orgical Reactions Entropy together a measure of Disorder Entropy and the 2nd Law that Thermodynamics
The third Law that Thermodynamics Standard-State Entropies the Reaction Enthalpy the Reaction vs. Entropy of Reaction Calculations

Spontaneous bsci-ch.orgical Reactions

The first law the thermodynamics argues that we can"t acquire something fornothing. It permits us to build an apparatus the does work, but it areas importantrestrictions on the apparatus. It says that we have to be willing to salary a price in termsof a loss of either warmth or internal power for any work we ask the system to do. That alsoputs a border on the amount of work-related we can acquire for a given investment the either warm orinternal energy.

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The an initial law enables us to transform heat into work, or work right into heat. Italso allows us to adjust the internal energy of a device by transferring either warm orwork in between the system and also its surroundings. However it doesn"t tell us whether one of thesechanges is an ext easy to accomplish than another. Our experiences, however, tell united state that thereis a desired direction to numerous natural processes. Us aren"t surprised once a cup ofcoffee progressively loses heat to the surroundings as it cools, because that example, or when the icein a glass that lemonade absorbs warm as it melts. But we would be surprised if a cup ofcoffee suddenly grew hotter until it boiled or the water in a glass the lemonade froze on ahot summer day, also though neither procedure violates the very first law that thermodynamics.

Similarly, us aren"t surprised to see a item of zinc steel dissolve in astrong acid to provide bubbles that hydrogen gas.

Zn(s) + 2 H+(aq) " width="17" height="9"> Zn2+(aq)+ H2(g)

But if we experienced a movie in which H2 bubbles developed on the surfaceof a solution and also then sank v the systems until lock disappeared, when a piece ofzinc metal created in the middle of the solution, we would certainly conclude the the film was beingrun backward.

Many bsci-ch.orgical and physical processes are reversible and yet have tendency toproceed in a direction in which castle are stated to be spontaneous. This raises anobvious question: What provides a reaction spontaneous? What cd driver the reaction in onedirection and not the other?

So many spontaneous reactions space exothermic the it is tempting come assumethat one of the driving forces that determines even if it is a reaction is voluntarily is atendency to give off energy. The complying with are all examples of voluntarily bsci-ch.orgicalreactions that are exothermic.

2 Al(s) + 3 Br2(l) " width="17" height="9"> 2 AlBr3(s) Ho = -511 kJ/mol AlBr3
2 H2(g) + O2(g) " width="17" height="9"> 2 H2O(g) Ho = -241.82 kJ/mol H2O
P4(s) + 5 O2(g) " width="17" height="9"> P4O10(s) Ho = -2984 kJ/mol P4O10

There are likewise spontaneous reactions, however, that absorb power fromtheir surroundings. In ~ 100oC, water boils spontaneously also though thereaction is endothermic.

H2O(l) " width="17" height="9"> H2O(g) Ho = 40.88 kJ/mol

Ammonium nitrate disappear spontaneously in water, also though power isabsorbed when this reaction take away place.

NH4NO3(s) " width="17" height="9"> NH4+(aq) + NO3-(aq) Ho = 28.05 kJ/mol

Thus, the tendency of a voluntary reaction to give off energy can"t bethe only driving force behind a bsci-ch.orgical reaction. There must be one more factor that helpsdetermine even if it is a reaction is spontaneous. This factor, well-known as entropy, is ameasure that the disorder of the system.

Entropy as a measure of Disorder

Perhaps the best way to know entropy together a driving force in nature isto command a an easy experiment v a new deck of cards. Open up the deck, remove the jokers,and then turn the deck so the you can read the cards. The peak card will be the ace ofspades, followed by the two, three, and also four that spades, and so on. Currently divide the cards inhalf, shuffle the deck, and also note the the deck becomes more disordered. The an ext often thedeck is shuffled, the much more disordered that becomes.What makes a deck that cards become moredisordered as soon as shuffled?

In 1877 Ludwig Boltzmann provided a basis for answering this concern whenhe presented the concept of the entropy of a system as a measure of the lot ofdisorder in the system. A deck the cards fresh from the manufacturer is perfect orderedand the entropy the this device is zero. As soon as the deck is shuffled, the entropy that thesystem boosts as the deck becomes more disordered.

There room 8.066 x 1067 different ways of arranging a deck ofcards. The probability the obtaining any particular sequence of cards as soon as the deck isshuffled is as such 1 part in 8.066 x 1067. In theory, that is feasible toshuffle a deck the cards until the cards fall into perfect order. But it isn"t very likely!

Boltzmann propose the complying with equation to explain the relationshipbetween entropy and the amount of disorder in a system.

S = k ln W

In this equation, S is the entropy that the system, k is aproportionality continuous equal come the right gas continuous divided through Avogadro"s constant, lnrepresents a logarithm come the basic e, and also W is the variety of equivalent waysof relenten the state of the system. According to this equation, the entropy that a systemincreases together the number of equivalent means of explicate the state that the systemincreases.

The relationship between the variety of equivalent methods of relenten asystem and also the amount of disorder in the system have the right to be prove with another analogybased top top a deck that cards. There are 2,598,960 various hands that could be handle in agame that five-card poker. Much more than fifty percent of this hands are basically worthless. Winninghands are much rarer. Only 3,744 combinations correspond to a "full house," forexample. The table listed below gives the variety of equivalent combine of cards because that eachcategory of poker hand, i m sorry is the value of W for this category. As the handbecomes more disordered, the value of W increases, and also the hand becomesintrinsically much less valuable.

Number of tantamount Combinations because that Various species of Poker Hands

Hand W ln W
Royal flush (AKQJ10 in one suit) 4 1.39
Straight flush (five cards in succession in one suit) 36 3.58
Four of a kind 624 6.44
Full residence (three that a sort plus a pair) 3,744 8.23
Flush (five cards in the exact same suit) 5,108 8.54
Straight (five cards in sequence) 10,200 9.23
Three of a kind 54,912 10.91
Two pairs 123,552 11.72
One pair 1,098,240 13.91
No pairs 1,302,540 14.08
Total 2,598,960

Entropy and the second Law of Thermodynamics

The second law that thermodynamics explains the relationship betweenentropy and the spontaneity of organic processes.

Second Law: In an isolated system, herbal processes room spontaneous as soon as they lead to rise in disorder, or entropy.

This explain is limited to isolated solution to avoid having to worryabout even if it is the reaction is exothermic or endothermic. By definition, neither warmth norwork deserve to be transferred between an diverted system and its surroundings.

We can use the 2nd law that thermodynamics come bsci-ch.orgical reaction bynoting that the entropy of a device is a state function that is straight proportional tothe disorder that the system.

Ssys > 0 suggests that the mechanism becomes an ext disordered during the reaction.
Ssys much less disordered during the reaction.

For an isolated system, any procedure that leader to boost in thedisorder the the mechanism will be spontaneous. The following generalizations can help usdecide once a bsci-ch.orgical reaction leads to rise in the disorder the the system.

Solids have actually a much more regular structure than liquids. Liquids room therefore an ext disordered than solids.

The corpuscle in a gas room in a state of constant, arbitrarily motion. Gases space therefore an ext disordered 보다 the matching liquids.

Practice trouble 2:

Which of the adhering to processes will lead to an increase in the entropy that the system?

(a) N2(g) + 3H2 (g) 2 NH3(g)

(b) H2O(l) H2O(g)

(c) CaCO3(s) " width="17" height="9"> CaO(s) + CO2(g)

(d) NH4NO3(s) + H2O(l) " width="17" height="9"> NH4+ (aq) + NO3- (aq)

Click below to examine your answer to Practice problem 2.

The sign of H for a bsci-ch.orgical reaction influence the direction in which the reactionoccurs.

Spontaneous reaction often, yet not always, give off energy.

The sign of S for a reaction can likewise determine the direction of the reaction.

In an diverted system, bsci-ch.orgical reactions happen in the direction that leads to an increase in the disorder that the system.

In stimulate to decide whether a reaction is spontaneous,it is as such important to take into consideration the effect of alters in both enthalpy and entropythat occur during the reaction.

Practice problem 3:

Use the Lewis structures of NO2 and also N2O4 and the stoichiometry that the adhering to reaction to decide whether H and S favor the reactants or products of this reaction:

2 NO2(g) N2O4(g)

Click right here to inspect your answer to Practice difficulty 3.

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The third Law of Thermodynamics

The third law of thermodynamics specifies absolute zero top top the entropyscale.

Third law: The entropy the a perfect crystal is zero when the temperature the the decision is equal to pure zero (0 K).

The crystal need to be perfect, or rather there will be some innate disorder.It additionally must be at 0 K; otherwise there will certainly be thermal motion within the crystal, whichleads to disorder.

As the crystal warms come temperatures over 0 K, the corpuscle in thecrystal begin to move, generating some disorder. The entropy that the decision graduallyincreases with temperature together the typical kinetic energy of the corpuscle increases. Atthe melting point, the entropy the the system boosts abruptly together the compound istransformed into a liquid, which is not also ordered as the solid. The entropy of theliquid slowly increases as the fluid becomes warmer due to the fact that of the rise in thevibrational, rotational, and translational motion of the particles. In ~ the cook point,there is another abrupt increase in the entropy of the substance together it is revolutionized intoa random, chaotic gas.

The table below provides an instance of the difference between the entropyof a substance in the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases.

The Entropy that Solid, Liquid, and also Gaseous develops of Sulfur Trioxide

Note that the devices of entropy are joules per mole kelvin (J/mol-K). Aplot the the entropy of this mechanism versus temperature is displayed in the figure below.


Standard-State Entropies of Reaction

Because entropy is a state function, the change in the entropy of thesystem the accompanies any procedure can it is in calculated by subtracting the initial worth ofthe entropy of the system from the final value.

S= Sf - Si

Sfor a bsci-ch.orgical reaction is because of this equal to the difference in between the amount of theentropies of the reactants and the products of the reaction.

S= S(products) - S(reactants)

When this difference is measure under standard-state conditions, theresult is the standard-state entropy the reaction, So.

So= So(products)- So(reactants)

By convention, the standard state for thermodynamic measurements ischaracterized by the complying with conditions.

Standard-state conditions:
All solutions have concentrations of 1 M.
All gases have actually partial pressures of 0.1 MPa (0.9869 atm)

Although standard-state entropies deserve to be measure up atany temperature, lock are regularly measured at 25oC.

Practice problem 4:

Calculate the standard-state entropy the reaction because that the following reactions and also explain the sign of S because that each reaction.

(a) Hg(l) Hg(g)

(b) 2NO2(g) N2O4(g)

(c) N2(g) + O2(g) 2NO(g)

Click below to examine your answer to Practice trouble 4.

Click right here to see a systems to Practice difficulty 4.

The difference BetweenEnthalpy the Reaction and also Entropy that Reaction Calculations

At an initial glance, tables that thermodynamic data it seems ~ inconsistent. Considerthe data in the table below, for example.

Thermodynamic Data for Aluminum and also Its Compounds

Substance HFo(kJ/mol) So (J/mol-K)
Al(s) 0 28.33
Al(g) 326.4 164.54
Al2O3(s) -1675.7 50.92
AlCl3(s) -704.2 110.67

The enthalpy data in this table are given in regards to the standard-stateenthalpy of formation of each substance, Hfo. This quantity is the heat offered offor soaked up when the substance is do from its aspects in their many thermodynamicallystable state at 0.1 MPa. The enthalpy of formation of AlCl3, because that example, isthe heat provided off in the adhering to reaction.

2 Al(s) + 3 Cl2(g) " width="17" height="9"> 2 AlCl3(s) Hfo = -704.2 kJ/mol

The enthalpy data in this table are therefore relative numbers, whichcompare each compound v its elements.

Enthalpy data are provided as family member measurements because there is noabsolute zero top top the enthalpy scale. All we deserve to measure is the heat given off or absorbedby a reaction. Thus, all we deserve to determine is the difference in between the enthalpies that thereactants and also the products of a reaction. We thus define the enthalpy of formation ofthe facets in their many thermodynamically stable says as zero and also report allcompounds as either an ext or less stable than their elements.

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Entropy data room different. The 3rd law defines absolute zero ~ above theentropy scale. Together a result, the pure entropy of any element or compound can bemeasured by comparing it with a perfect crystal at absolute zero. The entropy data aretherefore provided as pure numbers, So, not entropies of formation, Sof.