Key PointsHydrogen bonds are strong intermolecular forces produced when a hydrogen atom bonded to an electronegative atom viewpoints a nearby electronegative atom.Greater electronegativity of the hydrogen bond acceptor will lead to an increase in hydrogen-bond strength.The hydrogen bond is among the strongest intermolecular attractions, but weaker 보다 a covalent or one ionic bond.Hydrogen bonds space responsible for holding together DNA, proteins, and also other macromolecules.

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Termshydrogen bondThe attraction in between a partly positively charged hydrogen atom attached to a highly electronegative atom (such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine) and also another adjacent electronegative atom.electronegativityThe propensity of an atom or molecule to draw electrons towards itself, kind dipoles, and thus kind bonds.intermolecularA kind of interaction in between two various molecules.

Forming a Hydrogen Bond

A hydrogen shortcut is the electromagnetic attraction created in between a partly positively fee hydrogen atom attached to a extremely electronegative atom and another nearby electronegative atom. A hydrogen link is a form of dipole-dipole interaction; it is no a true chemical bond. This attractions have the right to occur between molecules (intermolecularly) or within various parts the a solitary molecule (intramolecularly).

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Hydrogen bonding in waterThis is a space-filling round diagram the the interactions between separate water molecules.

Hydrogen shortcut Donor

A hydrogen atom attached come a relatively electronegative atom is a hydrogen link donor. This electronegative atom is generally fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen. The electronegative atom attracts the electron cloud from about the hydrogen cell nucleus and, through decentralizing the cloud, leaves the hydrogen atom with a positive partial charge. Because of the tiny size that hydrogen relative to various other atoms and also molecules, the resulting charge, though only partial, is stronger. In the molecule ethanol, there is one hydrogen atom external inspection to an oxygen atom, i m sorry is really electronegative. This hydrogen atom is a hydrogen bond donor.

Hydrogen bond Acceptor

A hydrogen shortcut results once this solid partial positive charge attractive a lone pair of electron on another atom, which becomes the hydrogen shortcut acceptor. An electronegative atom such as fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen is a hydrogen bond acceptor, regardless of even if it is it is external inspection to a hydrogen atom or not. Higher electronegativity that the hydrogen bond acceptor will develop a stronger hydrogen bond. The diethyl ether molecule includes an oxygen atom that is no bonded to a hydrogen atom, making that a hydrogen link acceptor.

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Hydrogen bond donor and also hydrogen bond acceptorEthanol includes a hydrogen atom the is a hydrogen bond donor because it is bonded to one electronegative oxygen atom, which is very electronegative, therefore the hydrogen atom is slightly positive. Diethyl ether includes an oxygen atom the is a hydrogen link acceptor due to the fact that it is not bonded to a hydrogen atom and also so is slightly negative.

A hydrogen attached to carbon can also participate in hydrogen bonding once the carbon atom is bound come electronegative atoms, as is the case in chloroform (CHCl3). As in a molecule whereby a hydrogen is attached come nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, the electronegative atom attractive the electron cloud from about the hydrogen nucleus and, by decentralizing the cloud, pipeline the hydrogen atom through a positive partial charge.

Interactive: Hydrogen BondingExplore hydrogen bonds forming in between polar molecules, such as water. Hydrogen bonds are displayed with dotted lines. Display partial charges and also run the model. Where carry out hydrogen binding form? Try transforming the temperature of the model. Exactly how does the sample of hydrogen bonding explain the lattice that makes up ice crystals?

Applications because that Hydrogen Bonds

Hydrogen bonds occur in not natural molecules, such together water, and also organic molecules, such as DNA and proteins. The two complementary strands that DNA are organized together by hydrogen bonds in between complementary nucleotides (A&T, C&G). Hydrogen bonding in water contributes to its distinct properties, consisting of its high boiling allude (100 °C) and surface tension.

Water droplets top top a leafThe hydrogen binding formed between water molecule in water droplets space stronger than the other intermolecular forces in between the water molecules and also the leaf, contributing to high surface ar tension and also distinct water droplets.

See more: A) What Is The Formal Charge On The Nitrogen Atom In No? Formal Charges

In biology, intramolecular hydrogen bonding is partially responsible for the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of proteins and nucleic acids. The hydrogen bonds aid the proteins and nucleic acids form and maintain details shapes.


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