Alternate titles: Brønsted–Lowry definition, acids and bases, proton concept of, proton concept of acids and bases
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Key People:Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted...(Show more)Related Topics:acidionic acidproton donorproton acceptorconjugate acid-base pair...(Show more)

Brønsted-Lowry theory, also called proton concept of acids and bases, a theory, introduced individually in 1923 by the Danish chemist johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and the English chemist cutting board Martin Lowry, stating that any compound that have the right to transfer a proton to any other link is one acid, and the compound that accepts the proton is a base. A proton is a nuclear particle with a unit positive electrical charge; that is stood for by the price H+ due to the fact that it constitutes the cell nucleus of a hydrogen atom.


Overview of three theories that acids and also bases: Arrhenius theory, Brønsted-Lowry theory, and also Lewis theory.

according to the Brønsted-Lowry scheme a problem can duty as an acid just in the presence of a base; similarly, a substance can duty as a base only in the presence of one acid. Furthermore, when an acidic substance loser a proton, it develops a base, called the conjugate base of one acid, and also when a straightforward substance profit a proton, it creates an acid referred to as the conjugate acid of a base. Thus, the reaction between an acidic substance, such as hydrochloric acid, and a basic substance, such together ammonia, might be stood for by the equation:

In order to resolve the various difficulties in the hydrogen–hydroxide ion definitions of acids and also bases, a new, more generalized definition...


In the equation the ammonium ion (NH+4 ) is the mountain conjugate come the base ammonia, and also the chloride ion (Cl-) is the basic conjugate come hydrochloric acid.

The Brønsted-Lowry theory enlarges the number of compounds considered to it is in acids and bases to encompass not just the neutral molecule (e.g., sulfuric, nitric, and acetic acids, and also the alkali steel hydroxides) yet also certain atoms and molecules with confident and negative electrical fees (cations and anions). The ammonium ion, the hydronium ion, and some hydrated metal cations are considered acids. The acetate, phosphate, carbonate, sulfide, and also halogen ions are thought about bases.

The editor of Encyclopaedia bsci-ch.orgThis article was many recently revised and also updated by Erik Gregersen, an elderly Editor.

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