An enzyme capable of vast specificity protein hydrolysis over a vast pH range.bromelain is one of the most popular substances to usage for meat tenderizing and in pet food production.

You are watching: What type of organic molecule is bromelain


Bromelain; Bromelain for meat tenderizing; meat tenderizing; Bromelain; Baking Enzymes; Dietary; Supplements; Food and also Beverage; BAK-1727

Bromelain belongs come thiol proteases, and also is a proteolytic enzyme extract from pineapple, mainly uncovered in the stems and also fruits. Bromelain deserve to be divided into stem bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4 or EC 3.4.4.24) and fruit bromelain (EC 3.4.22.5) relying on the extraction site. Because bromelain has high biocatalytic activity, it has been widely provided in miscellaneous industrial fields with the continuous improvement of enzyme purification technology. In bio-chemicals, bromelain can be provided in the manufacturing of cheese, gelatin, and also hydrolyzed proteins. In the food industry, bromelain have the right to be provided as a food additive come tenderize meat and clarify beer. In the pharmaceutical industry, bromelain is supplied to law edema and various inflammations since it have the right to dissolve fibrin and blood clots. Bromelain is harmless to common tissues and does not affect skin grafting, so it is suitable for the therapy of small areas that deep burns.

Molecular Structure

Bromelain is an enzyme mechanism composed of a variety of enzyme of various molecular weights and molecular structures, including at least 5 proteolytic enzymes. In addition, part bromelain additionally have phosphatase, peroxide, cellulase, glycosidase and non-protein substances. Bromelain is a glycoprotein through an oligosaccharide in its molecular framework consisting that xylose, fucose, mannose and N-aceltylglucosamine. Ishihara and also Yasuda et al. Inferred the structure of the oligosaccharide molecule the bromelain, respectively.

*
Figure 1. The molecular framework of the oligosaccharide molecule of bromelain speculated by Ishihara and Yasuda et al.

Properties

The isoelectric point of bromelain is 9.55, and also the maximum absorb wavelength the the enzyme equipment is 280 nm. Due to the fact that of its composition of multiple enzyme molecules, the catalytic substrate of bromelain is diverse. It have the right to decompose proteins, peptides, esters and also amides, and also its proteolytic task is an ext than 10 times higher than the of papain. The vital group for bromelain to catalyze is no the oligosaccharide molecule, however the sulfhydryl group in the peptide chain. In addition, the carboxyl group and also the hydroxyl team in the molecular structure of bromelain are additionally independent the the enzyme activity. The catalytic task of bromelain is susceptible to pH, temperature, steel ions, EDTA, and also reducing agents. The optimum pH the the enzyme is 7.1, the many stable pH range is 3.9-4.2, and also the optimum reaction temperature is 55°C. Mg2+ and Ca2+ have an inhibitory impact on bromelain activity at high concentrations, but have a promoting result at low concentrations. EDTA have the right to chelate the steel ions forced for the bromelain reaction, reducing the task of bromelain. The hydrochloride salt the cysteine disclosure the enzyme reaction rate within a certain concentration range.

Stability

Bromelain is a multi-enzyme system. Since of the various stability of various enzymes, the adaptability the bromelain to the alters of the external environment is really narrow, which certainly imposes an excellent restrictions on its commercial production. There are many factors that influence the security of bromelain, such as temperature and also humidity. Bromelain have the right to be inactivated in ~ high temperature and low temperature. The loss price of enzyme activity at 4°C for 6 month is 5%-10%, and also the loss price of enzyme task at regular temperature is together high together 10%-15%. Under high temperature conditions, a huge amount that water in the air renders the flexibility of the structure of bromelain increase, and also the self-hydrolysis capability is enhanced, thereby increasing the denaturation process. Some steel ions, essential carboxylates, monosaccharides, etc. Have the right to stabilize bromelain to part extent, and also this effect is accomplished by stability its three-dimensional conformation. In addition, the unmodified polyethylene glycol does not bind come bromelain and also prevents the binding of bromelain to the catalytic substrate in the reaction system, in order to reducing its enzyme activity. However, once the succinic anhydride-activated polyethylene glycol chemically modification bromelain, the security of the amendment enzyme was significantly improved compared to the native bromelain.

Applications

Application the bromelain in medical field

Bromelain has actually a good effect in the prevention and treatment the diarrhea in monogastric animals. Bromelain provides its proteolytic function to inhibit the receptor task of pathogenic strains in the intestinal street of animals, in order to reducing their adhesion in vivo. In many cases, bromelain is provided as a drug in a certain ratio to various other drugs to achieve the ideal clinical results. Chlorpheniramine is a class of anti-allergic medicine that, when an unified with bromelain, provide excellent anti-inflammatory effects and prevent boosted capillary permeability because of histamine. For male chronic prostatitis, the treatment through antibiotics plus bromelain enteric-coated tablets is significantly far better than antibiotics alone.

See more: Read In The Sq4R Method What Is The Purpose Of Surveying ? Sq4R Reading Method

Application that bromelain in food industry

Bromelain is a thiol protease that directly interacts v myofibrillar proteins, hydrolyzes fibrin and connective tissue, degrades proteins into little molecules of peptides and also amino acids, breaks muscle filaments and also tendons, and makes meat tender and also smooth. The usage of bromelain to hydrolyze collagen to create gelatin can thicken and also emulsify food, and also increase the content of food i beg your pardon is conveniently digested and also absorbed, and has a therapeutic effect.