Everybody enjoys the smell and also taste that freshly-baked bread. The is light and fluffy as a an outcome of the action of yeast on sugar. The yeast converts the street to carbon dioxide, which in ~ high temperatures reasons the dough come expand. The end result is an enjoyable treat, particularly when extended with melted butter.

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## Charles"s Law

French physicist Jacques Charles (1746-1823) learned the result of temperature ~ above the volume the a gas at continuous pressure. Charles"s Law states that the volume the a offered mass of gas varies straight with the absolute temperature of the gas once pressure is maintained constant. The absolute temperature is temperature measured v the Kelvin scale. The Kelvin scale need to be used due to the fact that zero ~ above the Kelvin scale synchronizes to a complete stopof molecular motion. Figure $$\PageIndex1$$: together a container of confined gas is heated, that molecules boost in kinetic energy and push the movable piston outward, resulting in an increase in volume.

Mathematically, the direct relationship the Charles"s Law can be represented by the adhering to equation:

\<\fracVT = k\>

As with Boyle"s Law, $$k$$ is constant only because that a given gas sample. The table below shows temperature and volume data for a collection amount of gas in ~ a continuous pressure. The 3rd column is the constant for this particular data collection and is constantly equal come the volume separated by the Kelvin temperature.

Temperature $$\left( \textK \right)$$Volume $$\left( \textmL \right)$$$$\fracVT = k$$ $$\left( \frac\textmL\textK \right)$$ Table $$\PageIndex1$$: Temperature-Volume Data
50 20 0.40
100 40 0.40
150 60 0.40
200 80 0.40
300 120 0.40
500 200 0.40
1000 400 0.40

When this data is graphed, the an outcome is a straight line, indicative the a direct relationship, shown in the number below. Given:

Given:T1 = -27oC and V1 = 34.8 L

V2 = 25.0 L

Find: T2 = ? K

List other well-known quantities.

K = -27oC + 273

Plan the problem.

1. Convert the initial temperature come Kelvin

2. Rearrange the equation algebraically to resolve for $$T_2$$.

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Cancel units and also calculate.

1. −67°C + 273 = 206 K

2. Instead of the known quantities into the equation and solve.

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Think about your result. This is also equal come −125°C. As temperature decreases, volume decreases—which the does in this example.

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## Summary

Charles’s law relates the volume and also temperature the a gasat consistent pressure and also amount.