Fluorine (F) is the first element in the Halogen group (group 17) in the routine table. Its atom number is 9 and its atomic load is 19, and also it"s a gas in ~ room temperature. It is the most electronegative element, offered that it is the top facet in the Halogen Group, and also therefore is an extremely reactive. The is a nonmetal, and also is one of the few elements that can kind diatomic molecules (F2). It has 5 valence electron in the 2p level. Its electron construction is 1s22s22p5. It will usually type the anion F- because it is extremely electronegative and also a solid oxidizing agent. Fluorine is a Lewis mountain in weak acid, which means that the accepts electrons once reacting. Fluorine has plenty of isotopes, but the just stable one discovered in nature is F-19.

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Quick reference Table

symbol atom Number team Electron construction Atomic load thickness Melting suggest Boiling allude crucial Point Oxidation states Electronegativity secure Isotopes
17 (Halogens)
18.998 g
1.7 g/L
144.13K, 5.172 MPa

Brief History

In the late 1600"s minerals which we now recognize contain fluorine were provided in etching glass. The exploration of the element was triggered by the search for the bsci-ch.orgistry substance which to be able to strike glass (it is HF, a weak acid). The early history of the isolation and work v fluorine and also hydrogen fluoride is to fill with mishaps since both are incredibly dangerous. Eventually, electrolysis of a mixture the KF and HF (carefully ensuring that the resulting hydrogen and also fluorine would certainly not come in contact) in a platinum apparatus surrendered the element.

Figure 2: digital configuration that Fluorine

Fluorine is the most electronegative facet because it has actually 5 electrons in it"s 2P shell. The optimal electron configuration of the 2P orbital has 6 electrons, so because Fluorine is for this reason close to best electron configuration, the electrons room held an extremely tightly to the nucleus. The high electronegativity that fluorine defines its tiny radius because the hopeful protons have a very strong attraction to the negative electrons, holding them closer to the nucleus 보다 the bigger and less electronegative elements.

Reactions of Fluorine

Because that its reactivity, element fluorine is never discovered in nature and no various other bsci-ch.orgical aspect can displace fluorine native its compounds. Fluorine bonds with nearly any element, both metals and also nonmetals, because it is a very strong oxidizing agent. That is really unstable and also reactive because it is so close to its best electron configuration. It creates covalent bonds through nonmetals, and since it is the most electronegative element, is always going to it is in the element that is reduced. It have the right to also form a diatomic aspect with itself ((F_2)), or covalent bonds where it oxidizes various other halogens ((ClF), (ClF_3), (ClF_5)). It will certainly react explosively with numerous elements and compounds such together Hydrogen and water. Element Fluorine is contempt basic, which method that when it reacts v water it forms (OH^-).

<3F_2+2H_2O ightarrow O_2+4HF ag1>

When merged with Hydrogen, Fluorine forms Hydrofluoric mountain ((HF)), i beg your pardon is a weak acid. This mountain is very dangerous and also when dissociated can reason severe damage to the body since while it may not it is in painful initially, the passes with tissues quickly and can reason deep burns that interfere with nerve function.

There are additionally some organic compounds make of Fluorine, ranging from nontoxic to very toxic. Fluorine creates covalent bonds with Carbon, which sometimes type into stable fragrant rings. As soon as Carbon reacts v Fluorine the reaction is complicated and creates a mixture the (CF_4), (C_2F_6), one (C_5F_12).

Fluorine reacts through Oxygen to type (OF_2) since Fluorine is an ext electronegative than Oxygen. The reaction goes:

<2F_2 + O_2 ightarrow 2OF_2 ag4>

Fluorine is for this reason electronegative that periodically it will even type molecules with noble gases prefer Xenon, such as the the molecule Xenon Difluoride, (XeF_2).

Fluorine additionally forms strong ionic compounds through metals. Some common ionic reactions of Fluorine are:

<4F_2 + HCl + H_2O ightarrow 3HF + OF_2 + ClF_3 ag7>

Applications of Fluorine

Compounds of fluorine are present in fluoridated toothpaste and also in countless municipal water systems where they help to avoid tooth decay. And, of course, fluorocarbons such together Teflon have actually made a significant impact top top life in the 20th century. Over there are numerous applications of fluorine:

Rocket fuel Polymer and also plastics production teflon and tefzel manufacturing When merged with Oxygen, provided as a frozen fridge cooler Hydrofluoric acid provided for glass etching Purify public water gives Uranium manufacturing Air conditioning


Fluorine deserve to either be discovered in nature or developed in a lab. To make it in a lab, compounds choose Potassium Fluoride are put through electrolysis through Hydrofluoric acid to create pure Fluorine and other compounds. It can be brought out v a range of compounds, commonly ionic ones involving Fluorine and also a metal. Fluorine can likewise be uncovered in nature in miscellaneous minerals and also compounds. The two main compounds it deserve to be uncovered in space Fluorspar ((CaF_2)) and also Cryolite ((Na_3AlF_6)).

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Newth, G. S. Not natural bsci-ch.orgistry. Longmans, Green, and Co.:New York, 1903. Latimer, Wendell M., Hildebrand, Joel H. Reference publication of inorganic bsci-ch.orgistry. The Macmillan Company: brand-new York, 1938.