A chunk of copper came to be the coldest cubic meter (35.3 cubic feet) on earth when researcher chilled it to 6 millikelvins, or six-thousandths that a degree above absolute zero (0 Kelvin).
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This is the closest a substance of this mass and volume has ever come to absolute zero. Researchers put the 880-lb. (400 kilograms) copper cube within a container dubbed a cryostat the is specially draft to save items incredibly cold. This is the very first cryostat developed that is qualified of keeping substances therefore close to pure zero.
"The main difficulty of this job was the technological an obstacle of the cryostat," Carlo Bucci, a researcher in ~ the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy that helped develop the cryostat, said Live Science. "We spent 10 year designing, realizing and testing the system."
Building the too much temperature cryostat is simply the an initial step in a brand-new experiment in i m sorry the cryostat will certainly act as a fragment detector. The setup because that the experiment is referred to as Cryogenic secret Observatory because that Rare events (CUORE) and also is being developed at the INFN Gran Sasso secret lab. Bucci and a team of researcher hope the CUORE detector will reveal an ext about the subatomic particles referred to as neutrinos and also why there is for this reason much an ext matter than antimatter in the universe.
Antimatter is make of particles through the exact opposite fee of those that constitute constant matter. Just after the big Bang that developed the world some 13.7 billion years ago, matter and antimatter are thought to have actually existed in equal amounts. However when these two substances collide, castle annihilate each other, which method the cosmos shouldn"t exist. Yet for part reason, matter pertained to dominate antimatter, and physicists are still unsure why.
Bucci and his colleagues expect to watch a rare phenomenon called neutrinoless double-beta decay. This happens as soon as antineutrinos decay into regular neutrinos. The researcher hope to prove that neutrinos are Majorana particles, meaning they act together their own antiparticles. Physicists think the phenomenon can explain why the universe includes so much much more matter 보다 antimatter. The experiment could likewise reveal the precise mass that neutrinos, something the physicists have actually been do the efforts to calculation for years.
But temperatures should stay approximately 10 millikelvins to offer the researchers any kind of shot in ~ observing the rarely event. That"s where the CUORE detector comes in. Once it is finished, the within of the cryostat will be inside wall with numerous crystals that have the right to detect neutrinos by picking up radiation and temperature changes. The cryostat is cooled making use of a high-power dilution frozen fridge (named so since of the chemical procedure that gives the cooling), yet uses a series of tubes that involve pressure and gas rather of fluid nitrogen or liquid helium.
Bucci said the team might not use liquid nitrogen or fluid helium, because those materials are expensive and could develop vibrations throughout the experiment. These might prevent the detector from choose up the neutrinos.
Almost 2 tons (1.8 metric tons) that lead will cover the cryostat, come prevent any kind of radiation from acquiring inside and interfering with the detection that the neutrinos.
Bucci and the team hope to have actually the experiment up and running within the next year.
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Kelly Dickerson is a staff writer for Live Science and Space.com. She regularly writes about physics, astronomy and also environmental issues, as well as general science topics. Kelly is functioning on a grasp of Arts degree at the City university of new York Graduate college of Journalism, and also has a Bachelor of science degree and also Bachelor that Arts level from Berry College. Kelly to be a competitive swimmer for 13 years, and also dabbles in skimboarding and long-distance running.