Antennae (singular antenna) are paired appendages linked to the anterior-most segments of arthropods. In crustaceans, lock are present on the very first two segment of the head, v the smaller sized pair well-known as antennules and also the bigger pair biramous (branched). All various other arthropod groups, except chelicerates and also proturans (which have none), have a single, uniramous pair of antennae, such as Myriapoda (millipedes, centipedes), Insecta (insects), and also the extinction Trilobita (trilobites).

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Arthropods (phylum Arthropoda) room invertebrates that are defined by the possession that a segmented body, a pair that jointed appendages on each segment, and also an exoskeleton. The jointed appendages include antennae as well as legs. The antennae room jointed at the very least at the base. There space a wide diversity of forms, including to the diversity the nature.

Arthropod antennae generally expand forward indigenous the head. They space sensory organs, although the exact nature the what lock sense and how they sense it is no the same in all groups, nor always clear. Attributes may variously include sensing touch, air motion, heat, vibration (sound), and also especially olfaction (smell) or gustation (taste).

The word antenna has likewise been provided as a typical metaphor, "spiritual antenna," in a variety of spiritual and spiritual disciplines, consisting of Christianity and Buddhism. Simply as antenna room sensory organs, spirituality antenna denote openness to a sixth sense, intuition, or spirituality reality.

Many crustaceans and also insects can regenerate antennas, and legs and claws.



Insects are distinguished from other arthropods by having actually three bag of jointed legs; an abdomen the is split into 11 segments and lacks any legs or wings; and a human body separated into three parts (head, thorax, and abdomen). They have one pair that antennae top top the head.

In insects, olfactory receptors on the antennae tie to smell molecules, including pheromones. The neurons the possess these receptors signal this binding by sending activity potentials down their axons to the antennal lobe in the brain. Indigenous there, neurons in the antennal lobes affix to mushroom bodies that recognize the odor. The amount of the electrical potentials the the antenna come a given odor have the right to be measured utilizing an electroantenogram.

The three straightforward segments that the usual insect antenna are the scape (base), the pedicel (stem), and also finally the flagellum, which often comprises numerous units well-known as flagellomeres. (The variety of flagellomeres can vary greatly, and is often of diagnostic importance.) True flagellomeres have a membranous articulation between them, yet in countless insects, especially the an ext primitive groups, the flagellum is totally or partly composed the a flexible collection of small annuli, which space not true flagellomeres. In many beetles and also in the chalcidoid wasps, the apical flagellomeres form a club, and the collective term because that the segments in between the club and the antennal base is the funicle (or funiculus). For traditional reasons, in beetles that is the segments in between the club and the scape, but in wasps, it is the segments in between the club and the pedicel. In the teams with much more uniform antennae (for example: Diplopoda), all segments are called antennomeres. Some teams have a an easy or variously modified apical or subapical bristle called an arista (this may be particularly well-developed in miscellaneous Diptera).


Crustaceans space the group of arthropods that includes the acquainted crabs, lobsters, shrimps, barnacles, copepods, krill, water fleas, and crayfish.Crustaceans are characterized by having actually branched (biramous) appendages, an exoskeleton made up of chitin and calcium, and also paired appendages that act favor jaws, with 3 pairs of biting mouthparts.

Crustaceans are additionally characterized by 2 pairs that antennae that extend in front of the mouth. The first pair are uniramous (single series of segments attached end-to-end) and are frequently referred come an antennules. The second pair are biramous, meaning that each antenna branches into two, and each branch is composed of a collection of segment attached end-to-end.

In most adults, the antenna are sensory organs, however they are supplied by the nauplius larva for both feeding and swimming. The strange structure of the 2nd of the male anostracan enable it come be supplied to connect to a female together it swims in copulation (Hunter 1969). In some groups of crustaceans, such as the spiny lobsters and also slipper lobsters, the second antennae are enlarged, while in others, such as crabs, the antennae are decreased in size.


Russell-Hunter, W. D. 1969. A biological of higher Invertebrates. London: Macmillan Company.Schütz, S., B. Weissbecker, H. E. Hummel, K.H. Apel, H. Schmitz, and H. Bleckmann. 1999. Insect antenna together a acting detector. Nature 398: 298-299.

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