An experiment is a regulated scientific study. In statistics, we frequently conduct experiment to understand how changing one variable affects one more variable.

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Amanipulated variable is a variable the we adjust or “manipulate” come see just how that adjust affects some other variable. A manipulated change is likewise sometimes referred to as an independent variable.

Aresponse variable is the variable that alters as a an outcome of the manipulated variable being changed. A solution variable is sometimes referred to as a dependent variable because its value regularly depends ~ above the value of the manipulated variable.


Often in experiments there space alsocontrolled variables, which room variables the are intentionally kept constant.

The score of an experiment is to keep all variables constant except for the manipulated variable so that we can attribute any change in the an answer variable to the alters made in the manipulated variable.

Let’s examine out a couple examples of various experiments to acquire a far better understanding of manipulated variables.

Example 1: Free-Throw Shooting

Suppose a basketball coach wants to conduct an experiment to identify if three various shooting techniques affect the free-throw percentage of his players.

He divides his team into three groups and also has each group use a different technique to shooting 100 free-throws. That then records the typical free-throw percent for every group.

In this experiment, us would have actually the following variables:

Manipulated variable: The shoot technique. This is the change that we manipulate to see exactly how it affect free-throw percentage.Response variable: The free-throw percentage. This is the change that alters as a an outcome of the manipulated variable being changed.Controlled variables: we would desire to make certain that every of the three teams shoot free-throws under the same conditions. So, variables that us might regulate include (1) gym lighting, (2) time that day, and (3) gym temperature.


Example 2: exam Scores

Suppose a teacher wants to understand just how the number of hours spent studying affects test scores. She intentionally has groups of students examine for 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 hours prior to an exam. She then has actually each group take the same exam and records the mean scores because that each group.

In this experiment, us would have the adhering to variables:

Manipulated variable: The variety of hours spent studying. This is the variable the the teacher manipulates to see exactly how it affects test scores.Response variable: The test scores. This is the change that changes as a an outcome of the manipulated variable gift changed.

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Controlled variables: us would desire to make sure that each of the groups of students take the test under the same conditions. So, variables that we might control include (1) time available to finish exam, (2) variety of breaks given during exam, and also (3) time the day as soon as exam is administered.


Additional Reading

What is one Antecedent Variable?What is one Extraneous Variable?What is an Intervening Variable?What is a Confounding Variable?