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As beforehand as September 1861, the CSA began issuing national currency, promising to salary the bearer the challenge amount — 6 months after ~ the ratification the a peace treaty.

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Within job of the autumn of ft Sumter, four more states joined the Confederacy: Virginia, north Carolina, Tennessee, and also Arkansas. The battle lines were now drawn.

On paper, the Union outweighed the Confederacy in nearly every way. Almost 21 million people lived in 23 north states. The South claimed just 9 million civilization — including 3.5 million slaves — in 11 confederate states. Despite the North"s better population, however, the South had actually an army nearly equal in size throughout the first year the the war.

The North had an huge industrial advantage as well. At the start of the war, the Confederacy had actually only one-ninth the industrial capacity that the Union. Yet that statistic to be misleading. In 1860, the North produced 97 percent that the country"s firearms, 96 percent the its rail locomotives, 94 percent that its cloth, 93 percent that its pig iron, and also over 90 percent of its boots and also shoes. The North had twice the thickness of railroads every square mile. There to be not even one rifleworks in the whole South.


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The southern was in ~ a significant disadvantage once it involved manufacturing, however the Confederacy controlled to save its weapons firing by developing ammunition from melted-down bells indigenous churches and town squares.

All that the principal ingredients that gunpowder to be imported. Because the North managed the navy, the seas to be in the hand of the Union. A blockade could suffocate the South. Still, the Confederacy was not without resources and also willpower.

The South can produce all the food it needed, though transporting it come soldiers and civilians was a major problem. The South additionally had a an excellent nucleus of trained officers. 7 of the eight armed forces colleges in the country were in the South.

The South additionally proved to be an extremely resourceful. By the finish of the war, it had established armories and also foundries in number of states. Castle built substantial gunpowder mills and melted down hundreds of church and also plantation bells for bronze to construct cannon.

The South"s best strength place in the fact that it was fighting top top the protective in its own territory. Familiar with the landscape, Southerners might harass north invaders.

The military and also political goals of the Union were much more complicated to accomplish. The Union had actually to invade, conquer, and occupy the South. It had to destroy the South"s capacity and also will to stand up to — a formidable challenge in any war.


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"We had the poorest commissary arrangements, and all I might get because that my males was salt and also hard crackers. Ns made the convalescents shoot squirrels, ground hogs, pheasants, and also turkeys through which to do soup for the men." -from the memoirs the Archibald Atkinson Jr., a Confederate surgeon

Southerners appreciated the initial advantage of morale: The southern was fighting to maintain its method of life, whereas the North was fighting to preserve a union. Slavery did not end up being a moral cause of the Union initiative until Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.

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When the war began, many an essential questions were still unanswered. What if the slave claims of Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and Delaware had joined the Confederacy? What if britain or France had involved the assist of the South? What if a few decisive beforehand Confederate victories had actually turned north public opinion versus the war?

Indeed, the north looked much better on paper. However many determinants undetermined in ~ the outbreak of war can have tilted the balance sheet toward a various outcome.