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Following the fatality of Ḥusayn, Kūfah witnessed a collection of anti-Umayyad Shiʿi risings. In 685 al-Mukhtār ibn Abī ʿUbayd al-Thaqafī, a nephew of among ʿAlī’s governors, rose to proclaim Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥanafiyyah—ʿAlī’s just remaining boy by a later wife, Khawlah bint Jaʿfar al-Ḥanafiyyah—as imam (spiritual and political leader) and also as the messianic figure called the mahdī. Al-Mukhtār’s to know of Ibn al-Ḥanafiyyah as the mahdī significant the an initial use of that term in a messianic context. After part initial victories, al-Mukhtār’s climbing was crushed in 687. Ibn al-Ḥanafiyyah himself died in 700–01. Part maintained, however, the he had not died and also was in occultation (ghaybah)—that is, alive but not clearly shows to the community.
Anti-Umayyad movements: the Zaydi Shiʿah and also the ʿAbbāsids
Mawālī and South Arabian tribal aspects were amongst Muḥammad’s supporters, however they additionally supported a series of later uprisings centred top top the Prophet’s household that occurred in the an ar into the 8th century.
One of these risings to be led by Zayd ibn ʿAlī, a half-brother the ʿAlī’s great grandson Muḥammad al-Bāqir by ʿAlī’s son Ḥusayn. In 740, urged by Kufan elements, Zayd rose versus the Umayyads, ~ above the principle that the imam can lay case to management only if he openly declared himself imam. Zayd fell in battle, yet his son Yaḥyā escaped come northeastern Iran. Later captured and released, the was killed in 743 after launching a further anti-Umayyad rising in Herat. The Zaydis endure today, largely in Yemen, and also are the 3rd largest that the 3 still extant Shiʿi groups, ~ the Twelver and Ismāʿīliyyah sects.
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Another movement, the ʿAbbāsids, launched a propaganda campaign around 718 that took benefit of currents desiring to replace the Umayyads with the Prophet’s family. Its focus was not on ʿAlī’s family, however, yet on ʿAbbās ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, an uncle that the Prophet. With much support from the mawālī and from pendant of ʿAlī’s family, the ʿAbbāsids prospered in unseating the Umayyads in 750. The ʿAbbāsid empire went on to empower the mawālī however abandoned loyalists come ʿAlī’s family, whose ideological leanings might challenge the legitimacy of the dynasty. Thus, while the ʿAbbāsid movement initially excited Shiʿi sentiments, it at some point rejected and suppressed the faction. ~ a glimmer that hope, some of the Shiʿah reasserted the knowledge that the leadership of the ummah might only lay through a details member of ʿAlī’s family.