Substances can adjust phase—often since of a temperature change. At short temperatures, most substances are solid; together the temperature increases, they come to be liquid; at higher temperatures still, they become gaseous.

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The procedure of a solid ending up being a fluid is referred to as melting (an older term that you might see periodically is fusion). The contrary process, a liquid coming to be a solid, is dubbed solidification. For any type of pure substance, the temperature at which melt occurs—known together the melting point—is a properties of that substance. It requires power for a solid come melt right into a liquid. Every pure substance has actually a details amount of power it requirements to adjust from a solid come a liquid. This quantity is dubbed the enthalpy of blend (or heat of fusion) of the substance, represented as ΔHfus. Part ΔHfus worths are detailed in Table 10.2 “Enthalpies of fusion for miscellaneous Substances”; it is assumed that these values are for the melting point of the substance. Note that the unit of ΔHfus is kilojoules every mole, for this reason we need to recognize the amount of product to know just how much power is involved. The ΔHfus is always tabulated together a optimistic number. However, it can be provided for both the melting and the solidification procedures as long as you save in mind the melting is constantly endothermic (so ΔH will be positive), when solidification is constantly exothermic (so ΔH will certainly be negative).

Table 10.2 Enthalpies of blend for assorted SubstancesSubstance (Melting Point)ΔHfus (kJ/mol)
Water (0°C)6.01
Aluminum (660°C)10.7
Benzene (5.5°C)9.95
Ethanol (−114.3°C)5.02
Mercury (−38.8°C)2.29

Example 10.3

What is the energy change when 45.7 g that H2O melt at 0°C?


The ΔHfus that H2O is 6.01 kJ/mol. However, our quantity is given in units of grams, no moles, for this reason the very first step is to transform grams to moles utilizing the molar massive of H2O, i m sorry is 18.0 g/mol. Climate we can use ΔHfus as a counter factor. Because the problem is melting, the process is endothermic, therefore the energy change will have a confident sign.


Without a sign, the number is suspect to be positive.

Test Yourself

What is the energy change when 108 g the C6H6 freeze at 5.5°C?

Answer−13.8 kJ

During melting, energy goes exclusively to changing the phase of a substance; the does not go into an altering the temperature of a substance. Hence melting is one isothermal process because a substance remains at the very same temperature. Only when every one of a substance is melted walk any extr energy go to changing its temperature.

What happens once a solid i do not care a liquid? In a solid, separation, personal, instance particles room stuck in place due to the fact that the intermolecular pressures cannot be get rid of by the energy of the particles. When more energy is gave (e.g., by elevating the temperature), there comes a point at i beg your pardon the particles have actually enough power to move about but no enough power to separate. This is the fluid phase: particles are still in contact but are able to move around each other. This explains why liquids deserve to assume the form of their containers: the corpuscle move roughly and, under the affect of gravity, fill the shortest volume feasible (unless the liquid is in a zero-gravity environment—see figure 10.3 “Liquids and also Gravity”).

Figure 10.16 Liquids and Gravity. (a) A fluid fills the bottom of its container as it is drawn downward by gravity and also the corpuscle slide over each other. (b) A fluid floats in a zero- gravity environment. The corpuscle still slide end each other because they are in the fluid phase, yet now there is no gravity to pull them down. (Source: “Glass of Water” by Derek Jensen is in the public domain; “Clayton Anderson zero g” s in the public domain because it was solely developed by NASA.)

The phase adjust between a liquid and also a gas has actually some similarity to the phase change between a solid and a liquid. At a specific temperature, the particles in a liquid have actually enough power to end up being a gas. The process of a liquid coming to be a gas is referred to as boiling (or vapourization), if the procedure of a gas ending up being a fluid is called condensation. However, uneven the solid/liquid switch process, the liquid/gas conversion procedure is noticeably influenced by the surrounding pressure ~ above the liquid since gases are strongly influenced by pressure. This way that the temperature in ~ which a liquid becomes a gas, the boiling point, can readjust with surrounding pressure. Therefore, we define the normal cook point as the temperature at which a liquid transforms to a gas as soon as the neighboring pressure is specifically 1 atm, or 760 torr. Uneven otherwise specified, that is assumed that a boiling suggest is because that 1 atm the pressure.

Like the solid/liquid step change, the liquid/gas phase change involves energy. The lot of energy required to transform a fluid to a gas is referred to as the enthalpy that vaporization (or warm of vaporization), represented as ΔHvap. Part ΔHvap values are provided in Table 10.3 “Enthalpies the Vaporization for assorted Substances”; the is assumed the these values space for the regular boiling allude temperature the the substance, which is additionally given in the table. The unit because that ΔHvap is also kilojoules per mole, therefore we require to understand the amount of product to know exactly how much energy is involved. The ΔHvap is likewise always tabulated as a optimistic number. It deserve to be provided for both the boiling and also the condensation procedures as long as you store in mind the boiling is constantly endothermic (so ΔH will be positive), while condensation is constantly exothermic (so ΔH will certainly be negative).

Table 10.3 Enthalpies of Vaporization for assorted SubstancesSubstance (Normal boiling Point)ΔHvap (kJ/mol)
Water (100°C)40.68
Bromine (59.5°C)15.4
Benzene (80.1°C)30.8
Ethanol (78.3°C)38.6
Mercury (357°C)59.23

Example 10.4

What is the energy readjust when 66.7 g that Br2(g) condense to a liquid at 59.5°C?


The ΔHvap the Br2 is 15.4 kJ/mol. Also though this is a condensation process, we can still usage the numerical worth of ΔHvap as lengthy as we realize that we should take power out, therefore the ΔH worth will it is in negative. To identify the size of the energy change, we must very first convert the lot of Br2 to moles. Climate we can use ΔHvap as a counter factor.


Because the process is exothermic, the actual value will be negative: ΔH = −6.43 kJ.

Test YourselfWhat is the energy change when 822 g that C2H5OH(ℓ) boil at its typical boiling suggest of 78.3°C?

Answer689 kJ

As with melting, the energy in boil goes solely to changing the step of a substance; that does not go into changing the temperature the a substance. For this reason boiling is likewise an isothermal process. Only when every one of a substance has actually boiled go any additional energy walk to transforming its temperature.

What happens when a liquid becomes a gas? we have already established the a fluid is written of corpuscle in call with each other. Once a fluid becomes a gas, the particles different from every other, through each fragment going that own means in space. This is how gases have tendency to fill their containers. Indeed, in the gas phase most of the volume is north space; only about 1/1,000th of the volume is actually taken increase by issue (Figure 10.17 “Liquids and also Gases”). The is this home of gases that defines why they have the right to be compressed, a reality that is considered in chapter 6 “Gases”.

Figure 10.17 Liquids and also Gases. In (a), the particles space a liquid; the particles room in contact but are likewise able to move roughly each other. In (b), the particles room a gas, and most of the volume is in reality empty space. The particles are not to scale; in reality, the dots representing the particles would certainly be around 1/100th the dimension as depicted.

Under part circumstances, the solid phase can change directly to the gas phase without going with a liquid phase, and also a gas have the right to directly come to be a solid. The solid-to-gas readjust is referred to as sublimation, when the reverse process is referred to as deposition. Sublimation is isothermal, choose the various other phase changes. Over there is a measurable energy readjust during sublimation; this energy readjust is referred to as the enthalpy the sublimation, represented as ΔHsub. The relationship between the ΔHsub and also the various other enthalpy alters is together follows:

ΔHsub = ΔHfus + ΔHvap

As such, ΔHsub is not always tabulated due to the fact that it deserve to be simply calculated indigenous ΔHfus and also ΔHvap.

There are several common examples that sublimation. A renowned product—dry ice—is in reality solid CO2. Dry ice cream is dry since it sublimes, v the solid bypassing the liquid phase and also going straight to the gas phase. The sublimation occurs at temperature the −77°C, so it need to be tackled with caution. If friend have ever before noticed that ice cubes in a freezer tend to obtain smaller over time, the is due to the fact that the hard water is an extremely slowly subliming. “Freezer burn” isn’t in reality a burn; it wake up when specific foods, such as meats, gradually lose solid water content since of sublimation. The food is still good but watch unappetizing. Reduce the temperature of a freezer will slow the sublimation of solid water.

Chemical equations deserve to be supplied to stand for a phase change. In together cases, it is critical to use phase brand on the substances. For example, the chemical equation because that the melt of ice to make liquid water is together follows:

H2O(s) → H2O(ℓ)

No chemical readjust is acquisition place; however, a physical adjust is taking place.

Heating Curves

A plot that the temperature matches the quantity of heat included is known as a heating curve (Figure 10.18). This are frequently used to visually display the relationship in between phase changes and enthalpy because that a offered substance.

Figure 10.18. Generic heating curve diagram.

In figure 10.18<1>, the heavy gains kinetic energy and also consequently rises in temperature as warmth is added. In ~ the melt point, the heat included is supplied to break the attractive intermolecular pressures of the solid rather of raising kinetic energy, and therefore the temperature stays constant. After every the solid has actually melted, as soon as again, the heat included goes to enhancing the kinetic power (and temperature) the the fluid molecules till the cook point. At the cook point, when again, the heat added is provided to break the attractive intermolecular pressures instead of offering kinetic energy, and the temperature remains consistent until every liquid has been turned come gas.

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Phase alters can occur between any type of two phases the matter.All phase alters occur with a simultaneous adjust in energy.All phase transforms are isothermal.
QuestionsWhat is the difference in between melting and solidification?What is the difference in between boiling and condensation?Describe the molecular changes when a solid becomes a liquid.Describe the molecular transforms when a fluid becomes a gas.What is the energy adjust when 78.0 g that Hg melt in ~ −38.8°C?What is the energy readjust when 30.8 g of Al solidify in ~ 660°C?What is the energy change when 111 g the Br2 cook at 59.5°C?What is the energy change when 98.6 g the H2O condense at 100°C?Each of the following statements is incorrect. Rewrite them therefore they are correct.Temperature alters during a step change.The procedure of a liquid coming to be a gas is called sublimation.Each that the following statements is incorrect. Rewrite them for this reason they room correct.The volume the a gas consists of only about 10% matter, v the remainder being empty space.ΔHsub is equal to ΔHvap.Write the chemical equation for the melting of element sodium.Write the chemical equation because that the solidification that benzene (C6H6).Write the chemistry equation because that the sublimation the CO2.Write the chemical equation because that the cook of propanol (C3H7OH).What is the ΔHsub the H2O? (Hint: check out Table 10.2 “Enthalpies of fusion for assorted Substances” and also Table 10.3 “Enthalpies that Vaporization for miscellaneous Substances”.)The ΔHsub of I2 is 60.46 kJ/mol, if its ΔHvap is 41.71 kJ/mol. What is the ΔHfus the I2?AnswersMelting is the phase change from a solid to a liquid, conversely, solidification is the phase readjust from a liquid to a solid.The molecules have enough energy to move about each other yet not sufficient to fully separate from each other.890 J10.7 kJTemperature does not adjust during a phase change.The procedure of a liquid becoming a gas is called boiling; the process of a solid becoming a gas is dubbed sublimation.Na(s) → Na(ℓ)CO2(s) → CO2(g)46.69 kJ/mol