Persuasive appeals

The appeal to ethos (the standing of the writer or speaker).

The appeal to pathos (emotion).

You are watching: Repetition in the declaration of independence

The appeal to logos (reason): deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning.

Language analysis

Diction (word choice).

Syntax (sentence structure).

Images (figurative language, imagery, and the like).

In the long first sentence of the declaration, the writers set their revolution in the context of human history ("the Course of human events").

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In the first sentence of the second paragraph, the parallel structure and repetition of that enable the writers to enunciate with great clarity their fundamental beliefs. The personification of prudence emphasizes how reasonable the writers are. The negative diction about the actions of the British king and his subjects begins in this paragraph--and carries an emotional appeal.

The long list of grievances reads like hammer blows because of the parallel structure and anaphora, the vilifying verbs, and the choice of other words that arouse the emotion of the audience.

The list climaxes with "He is"--the only phrase other than "He has" in the list. The present tense lends urgency to the need for revolution; otherwise, only "death, desolation, and tyranny" await.

The two paragraphs following the list of grievances are packed with effective rhetorical devices that only heighten the ethical appeal: the writers are intelligent and eloquent men.

Like the second paragraph, the concluding paragraph relies on parallel structure and repetition of that in declaring the colonies "Free and Independent States." The climax of the last line effective portrays the signers as heroes: men who will risk everything to support the rights of man established by God.