IB HomeStandard LevelTopic 1: statistics AnalysisTopic 2: CellsTopic 3: chemicals of Life3.2 Carbohydrate, Lipid & ProteinTopic 4: GeneticsTopic 5: Ecology and EvolutionTopic 6: wellness & PhysiologyHigher LevelTopic 7: Nucleic mountain & ProteinTopic 8: Respiration & photo ..Topic 9: plant ScienceTopic 10: GeneticsTopic 11: wellness & PhysiologyOptionsOption A: Nutrition & HealthOption B: Physiology the ExerciseOption C: Energy and also CellsOption D: EvolutionOption E: Neurobiology & Behav..Option F: Microbes & Biotech..Option G: Ecology & Conservat..Option H: more PhysiologyAdditional Resources

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3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids and also Proteins


3.2.1 Distinguish in between organic and inorganic compounds

Organic compounds room compounds comprise carbon that are discovered in living things - other than hydrogen carbonates (HCO3-), carbonates (CO32-) and also oxides the carbon (CO, CO2)Inorganic compounds space all other compounds (there room less different inorganic compounds than organic compounds)


Carbohydrates room organic compounds consisting the one or much more simple sugars that together monomers follow the general an easy formula of (CH2O)x

Note: exceptions to this an easy formula and the consist of of other atoms (e.g. N) deserve to occur

3.2.2 determine glucose and also ribose indigenous diagrams reflecting their structure

Glucose (C6H12O6) Ribose (C5H10O5)


3.2.3 list three instances each that monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides

Monosaccharides:  Glucose, galactose, fructose

Disaccharides: Lactose, maltose, sucrose

Polysaccharides: Cellulose, glycogen, starch

3.2.4 State one duty of glucose, lactose and also glycogen in animals and of fructose, sucrose and cellulose in plants


Glucose: A resource of energy which can be broken down to type ATP via moving respiration

Lactose: A sugar uncovered in the milk of mammals, providing energy for suckling infants

Glycogen: supplied by pets for brief term energy storage (between meals) in the liver


Fructose: discovered in honey and onions, the is really sweet and also a good source that energy

Sucrose: Used mostly as a transportable energy type (e.g. Street beets and sugar cane)

Cellulose: used by plant cells as a strengthening ingredient of the cabinet wall

3.2.5 rundown the duty of condensation and also hydrolysis in the relationship in between monosaccharides, disaccharides and also polysaccharides

Condensation (dehydration) reactions take place when molecules are covalently joined together and water is formed as a by-productIn carbohydrates, the bond that is created is dubbed a glycosidic linkageThe opposite of a condensation reaction is a hydrolysis reaction, which requires a water molecule to break a covalent bond between two subunitsMonosaccharides are solitary monomers that are joined to form disaccharides, while street containing multiple subunits (more than 10) are dubbed polysaccharides

A Condensation Reaction in between Two Monosaccharides




3.2.5 synopsis the function of condensation and also hydrolysis in the relationship between fatty acids, glycerol and also triglycerides

A condensation reaction occurs in between the three hydroxyl teams of glycerol and also the carboxyl groups of 3 fatty acidsThis reaction develops a triglyceride (and 3 molecules of water)The bond in between the glycerol and the fat acids is one ester linkageWhen one of the fatty acids is replaced by a phosphate group and also phospholipid is formedHydrolysis reaction will, in the visibility of water, break this molecules down right into their ingredient subunits

Formation that a Triglyceride

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3.2.6 State three attributes of lipids

Structure:  Phospholipids space a main component of cell membranes

Hormonal signalling: Steroids are associated in hormone signalling (e.g. Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone)

Insulation: fats in pets can offer as heat insulators when sphingolipids in the myelin sheath (of neurons) have the right to serve as electric insulators 

Protection:  Triglycerides may form a tissue layer about many key internal guts and carry out protection against physical injury

Storage that energy: Triglycerides deserve to be supplied as a long-term power storage source

3.2.7 compare the use of carbohydrates and also lipids in power storage


Complex carbohydrate (e.g. Polysaccharides) and lipids both save a lot of chemical energy and also can be supplied for power storageComplex carbohydrates and also lipids are both insoluble in water - they space not quickly transportedCarbohydrates and lipids both burn cleaner 보다 proteins (they execute not productivity nitrogenous wastes)


Lipid molecule contain much more energy per gram than carbohydrates (about double as much)Carbohydrates are more readily digested than lipids and release their energy more rapidlyMonosaccharides and disaccharides are water soluble and also easier to carry to and from storage sites 보다 lipidsAnimals tend to use carbohydrates mainly for short-term energy storage, when lipids room used much more for long-term energy storageCarbohydrates room stored as glycogen in animals while lipids space stored together fats (in plants carbohydrates space stored as cellulose and also lipids together oils)Lipids have less result on osmotic push within a cabinet than complex carbohydrates

Types that Amino Acids

3.2.5 outline the function of condensation and hydrolysis in the relationship in between amino acids and polypeptides

A condensation reaction occurs in between the amino group (NH2) of one amino acid and the carboxylic acid group (COOH) of another amino acidThis reaction creates a dipeptide (plus a molecule of water) the is held together by a peptide bondMultiple amino acids have the right to be joined with each other to form a polypeptide chainIn the existence of water, polypeptides have the right to be damaged down right into individual amino mountain via hydrolysis reactions