"The Sun, with all the planets revolving about it, and depending top top it, deserve to still ripen a bunch of grapes together though it had nothing else in the world to do." ~ Galileo

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Mass: 1.989x1030 kg Radius: 695,000 km (equator) average Density: 1.410 gm/cm3 Rotation Period: 25 - 36 job escape Velocity: 618.02 km/sec Luminosity: 3.839 x 1026 watt magnitude (Vo): -26.8 surface Temp: 5,780 K (mean) Age: 4.5 billion year

In the main point of the sun hydrogen is being converted right into helium. This is referred to as nuclear fusion. That takes four hydrogen atom to fuse into each helium atom. During the process some the the fixed is converted into energy. fixed of 4 H atoms: 4.03130 AMU fixed of 1 he atom: 4.00268 AMU 1 atom Mass Unit (AMU) equals 1.67x10-27kgs The difference in between the massive of 4 H atoms and 1 he atom is 0.02862 AMU which is just 0.71% the the initial mass. This small fraction of the mass is converted right into energy. If 4 grams (1/8 ounce) of H are converted to He, just 2.8x10-3 grams the the fixed is convert to energy: exactly how much power is created from converting together a tiny amount the mass? We deserve to calculate by utilizing Einstein"s famed formula. E = mc2 E = (2.8x10-3 grams) x c2 E = (2.8x10-6 kgs) x (3x108m/sec)2 E = 2.6x1011 joules Enough power to keep a 60-watt light pear shining because that over 100 years! The sunlight has various layers with different properties, this layers room composed of material that is around 75% hydrogen and 25% helium through mass. Merely put, the sun is a great ball that gas, hot sufficient to light in every tier. In the an extremely innermost component of the Sun, referred to as its core, the temperature is about 15 million Kelvins, the thickness is 150 times that of water, and also the press is end 200 exchange rate times higher than atmospheric pressure right here on Earth. This heavy, sweltering location is where the Sun"s energy is produced via a process known as thermonuclear fusion. While fusion is an overwhelming to mimic ~ above Earth, the core of the Sun and also other stars is a perfect setting for it. Here, the temperatures space high enough for hydrogen nuclei come smash together and type helium nuclei, releasing tremendous amounts of power in assorted forms. Energy created in the form of light keeps bouncing approximately inside the Sun, as though the sun were made totally of mirrors. A particle of light have the right to take much more than 30,000 years to with the surface and escape! power in the form of small particles dubbed neutrinos, however, have the right to travel directly out of the Sun and into the Solar System. Neutrino observatories on planet measure the constant wash of this tiny, fast-moving particles. The evident visual magnitude of the sun is -26.8, making the appear around 10 billion (10,000,000,000) times together bright as the following brightest star, Sirius. The pure magnitude of the Sun, the magnitude it would have at a distance of 10 parsec or 32.6 irradiate years, is +4.8. Among the brightest stars we can see through the naked eye, over there is just one, alpha Centauri, with a comparable absolute size to the Sun. Many of the rest are intrinsically much brighter. irradiate takes around 500 seconds (8 1/3 minutes) to travel from the sunlight to the Earth. The mean distance to the earth from the center of the sunlight is about 149,000,000 km, or 93,000,000 miles; a distance known as an astronomical unit (AU). There room over 63,000 AU in 1 irradiate year. 1 AU is around 0.000016 light year. The nearest star, alpha Centauri, is 4.3 light years distant, or around 280,000 AU.

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task on the solar surface, photo by Brad Snowder.