Learning Objectives

The arts of the Italian Renaissance was prominent throughout Europe because that centuries.

You are watching: Match each artist with the correct period or movement


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe Florence college of painting ended up being the dominant style throughout the Renaissance. Renaissance artworks depicted more secular subject matter than previous creative movements.Michelangelo, da Vinci, and Rafael are among the finest known artist of the High Renaissance.The High Renaissance was followed by the Mannerist movement, well-known for elongated figures.Key Termsfresco: A type of wall painting in which color pigments are blended with water and applied to wet plaster. As the plaster and also pigments dry, castle fuse together and also the painting becomes a component of the wall itself.Mannerism: A style of art occurred at the end of the High Renaissance, identified by the deliberate distortion and also exaggeration that perspective, especially the elongation the figures.

The Renaissance started during the 14th century and also remained the overcome style in Italy, and in lot of Europe, till the 16th century. The ax “renaissance” was emerged during the 19th century in order to describe this duration of time and its accompanying imaginative style. However, civilization who to be living throughout the Renaissance did view themselves as different from their middle ages predecessors. V a range of messages that survive, we know that world living during the Renaissance observed themselves as different largely because they were deliberately trying to imitate the Ancients in art and architecture.

Florence and also the Renaissance

When friend hear the term “Renaissance” and snapshot a format of art, girlfriend are more than likely picturing the Renaissance layout that was developed in Florence, which became the overcome style of art during the Renaissance. During the middle Ages and the Renaissance, Italy was separated into a variety of different city states. Each city state had its own government, culture, economy, and also artistic style. There were countless different styles of art and also architecture that were emerged in Italy during the Renaissance. Siena, which was a political ally of France, for example, kept a Gothic facet to its arts for much of the Renaissance.

Certain problems aided the development of the Renaissance layout in Florence throughout this time period. In the 15th century, Florence came to be a significant mercantile center. The manufacturing of cloth drove their economy and a merchant class emerged. Humanism, i m sorry had arisen during the 14th century, remained an essential intellectual activity that impacted art manufacturing as well.

Early Renaissance

During the early Renaissance, artists started to disapprove the byzantine style of spiritual painting and strove to create realism in their depiction the the human form and space. This aim toward realism began with Cimabue and also Giotto, and also reached its height in the art of the “Perfect” artists, such together Andrea Mantegna and Paolo Uccello, who developed works that employed one point perspective and played through perspective for their educated, art knowledgeable viewer.

During the beforehand Renaissance we also see important developments in subject matter, in enhancement to style. While religion was crucial element in the everyday life of civilization living throughout the Renaissance, and also remained a driving factor behind creative production, we additionally see a brand-new avenue open up to panting—mythological subject matter. Countless scholars point to Botticelli’s Birth that Venus together the very an initial panel painting of a mythological scene. When the heritage itself likely arose from cassone painting, which commonly featured scenes from mythology and also romantic texts, the advancement of superordinary panel painting would open up a world for creative patronage, production, and themes.


Birth that Venus: Botticelli’s birth of Venus was among the most crucial works that the early on Renaissance.


High Renaissance

The duration known together the High Renaissance to represent the culmination that the objectives of the early Renaissance, namely the realistic representation of figures in space rendered through credible motion and also in an appropriately decorous style. The most famous artists native this phase are Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Titian, and Michelangelo. Their paintings and frescoes are among the most widely known works of arts in the world. Da Vinci’s Last Supper, Raphael’s The college of Athens and also Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel Ceiling paintings are the masterpieces of this duration and embody the aspects of the High Renaissance.


Marriage of the Virgin, by Raphael: The paint depicts a marital relationship ceremony in between Mary and Joseph.


Mannerism

High Renaissance painting progressed into Mannerism in Florence. Mannerist artists, that consciously rebelled against the ethics of High Renaissance, had tendency to represent elongated numbers in illogical spaces. Modern scholarship has recognized the capacity of Mannerist arts to convey strong, frequently religious, emotion where the High Renaissance failure to perform so. Some of the key artists of this duration are Pontormo, Bronzino, Rosso Fiorentino, Parmigianino and Raphael’s pupil, Giulio Romano.

Art and also Patronage

The Medici family used their large fortune to control the Florentine politics system and also sponsor a series of imaginative accomplishments.


Learning Objectives

Discuss the relationship between art, patronage, and also politics during the Renaissance


Key Takeaways

Key PointsAlthough the Renaissance was underway prior to the Medici family pertained to power in Florence, their patronage and also political support of the arts aided catalyze the Renaissance into a completely fledged cultural movement.The Medici wealth and influence initially acquired from the textile trade guided by the guild that the Arte della Lana; v financial superiority, the Medici dominated their city’s government.Medici patronage was responsible for the majority of Florentine art throughout their reign, as artists typically only made their works when they got commissions in advance.Although no one of the Medici themselves to be scientists, the household is renowned to have been the patrons of the well known Galileo Galilei, who tutored lot of generations of Medici children.Key TermsLorenzo de’ Medici: an Italian statesman and also de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic, who was one of the most an effective and enthusiasm patrons of the Renaissance.patronage: The support, encouragement, privilege, or financial help that an organization or separation, personal, instance bestows ~ above another, especially in the arts.

Overview

It has actually long to be a matter of dispute why the Renaissance began in Florence, and not in other places in Italy. Scholars have provided several features distinctive to Florentine social life the may have actually caused such a cultural movement. Plenty of have emphasized the function played through the Medici, a bank family and also later ducal judgment house, in patronizing and also stimulating the arts. Lorenzo de’ Medici (1449–1492) to be the catalyst because that an huge amount of arts patronage, encouraging his countrymen to commission functions from the leading artists that Florence, consisting of Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, and also Michelangelo Buonarroti. Works by Neri di Bicci, Botticelli, da Vinci, and also Filippino Lippi had been commissioned in addition by the convent di mountain Donato agli Scopeti that the Augustinians order in Florence.

The Medici residence Patronage

The residence of Medici was an Italian bank family, politics dynasty, and also later royal home that an initial began to gather importance under Cosimo de’ Medici in the Republic the Florence throughout the very first half that the 15th century. Their wealth and also influence initially derived from the textile profession guided by the guild that the Arte della Lana. Like various other signore families, they dominated their city’s government, they to be able to bring Florence under your family’s power, and also they produced an environment where art and Humanism might flourish. They, together with other households of Italy, such as the Visconti and also Sforza that Milan, the Este of Ferrara, and the Gonzaga of Mantua, fostered and also inspired the birth of the Italian Renaissance.

The biggest success of the Medici were in the sponsorship of art and architecture, greatly early and High Renaissance art and also architecture. The Medici were responsible for the majority of Florentine art during their reign. Their money was far-reaching because during this period, artists typically only made your works as soon as they got commissions in advance. Giovanni di Bicci de’ Medici, the very first patron the the arts in the family, aided Masaccio and also commissioned Brunelleschi for the repair of the Basilica of san Lorenzo, Florence, in 1419. Cosimo the Elder’s notable imaginative associates were Donatello and also Fra Angelico. The most far-reaching addition to the list over the years to be Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564), who created work because that a number of Medici, beginning with Lorenzo the Magnificent, who was stated to be very fond of the young Michelangelo, inviting that to study the household collection of antique sculpture. Lorenzo likewise served together patron the Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) for 7 years. Indeed, Lorenzo to be an artist in his very own right, and also an writer of poetry and also song; his assistance of the arts and also letters is viewed as a high allude in Medici patronage.


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The Medici House: Medici household members inserted allegorically in the entourage that a king indigenous the three Wise guys in the Tuscan countryside in a Benozzo Gozzoli fresco, c. 1459.


In architecture, the Medici space responsible for part notable functions of Florence, consisting of the Uffizi Gallery, the Boboli Gardens, the Belvedere, the Medici Chapel, and the Palazzo Medici. Later, in Rome, the Medici Popes continued in the family members tradition by patronizing artist in Rome. Pope Leo X would chiefly commission works from Raphael. Pope Clement VII i was delegated Michelangelo to paint the altar wall surface of the Sistine Chapel just prior to the pontiff’s fatality in 1534. Eleanor the Toledo, princess that Spain and also wife that Cosimo i the Great, purchased the Pitti palace from Buonaccorso Pitti in 1550. Cosimo in turn patronized Vasari, who put up the Uffizi collection in 1560 and founded the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno (“Academy of the arts of Drawing”) in 1563. Marie de’ Medici, widow that Henry IV that France and mother that Louis XIII, is the topic of a i was delegated cycle that paintings recognized as the Marie de’ Medici cycle, painted because that the Luxembourg palace by court painter Peter Paul Rubens in 1622–1623.

Although no one of the Medici themselves to be scientists, the household is renowned to have actually been the patrons the the famed Galileo Galilei, who tutored lot of generations the Medici children and also was an essential figurehead for his patron’s quest for power. Galileo’s patronage was at some point abandoned by Ferdinando II as soon as the Inquisition accused Galileo of heresy. However, the Medici household did afford the scientist a safe haven for many years. Galileo called the 4 largest moons of Jupiter after four Medici youngsters he tutored, return the surname Galileo provided are no the names right now used.

Leonardo da Vinci

While Leonardo da Vinci is admired together a scientist, an academic, and also an inventor, that is most well known for his achievements as the artist of number of Renaissance masterpieces.


Learning Objectives

Describe the functions of Leonardo da Vinci that show his many innovative techniques as an artist


Key Takeaways

Key PointsAmong the characteristics that make da Vinci’s work distinct are the innovative approaches that he used in laying top top the paint, his detailed knowledge that anatomy, his innovative use of the human form in figurative composition, and his use of sfumato.Among the most famous works developed by da Vinci is the little portrait title the Mona Lisa, known for the elusive laugh on the woman’s face, brought about by the reality that da Vinci subtly shadowed the corners that the mouth and also eyes so that the specific nature that the smile cannot it is in determined.Despite his well known paintings, da Vinci was no a prolific painter; he to be a prolific draftsman, keeping journals full of tiny sketches and detailed illustrations recording every manner of things that interested him.Key Termssfumato: In painting, the applications of ethereal layers of translucent paint so that there is no visible transition between colors, tones, and often objects.

While Leonardo da Vinci is significantly admired together a scientist, one academic, and also an inventor, that is most renowned for his achievements as the painter of number of Renaissance masterpieces. His paints were groundbreaking because that a range of reasons and his works have actually been imitated by students and also discussed at great length by connoisseurs and critics.

Among the features that make da Vinci’s work distinct are the innovative techniques that he supplied in laying on the paint, his detailed knowledge that anatomy, his usage of the human kind in figurative composition, and his usage of sfumato. All of these characteristics are current in his most commemorated works, the Mona Lisa, The critical Supper, and also the Virgin of the Rocks.


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The Virgin the the Rocks, Leonardo da Vinci, 1483–1486: This painting shows the Madonna and Child Jesus with the infant John the Baptist and an angel, in a rocky setting.


The last Supper

Da Vinci’s most commemorated painting that the 1490s is The critical Supper, which was painted for the refectory of the Convent that Santa Maria della Grazie in Milan. The painting depicts the critical meal mutual by Jesus and the 12 Apostles wherein he announces that one of the them will certainly betray him. When finished, the paint was acclaimed together a masterpiece of design. This work demonstrates something the da Vinci did very well: acquisition a very traditional topic matter, such as the critical Supper, and completely re-inventing it.

Prior come this minute in art history, every representation of the last Supper followed the exact same visual tradition: Jesus and also the Apostles sit at a table. Judas is inserted on the opposite next of the table of everyone else and is effortlessly identified by the viewer. Once da Vinci painted The critical Supper he put Judas ~ above the same side the the table together Christ and the Apostles, who are shown reacting to Jesus together he announces that among them will certainly betray him. Castle are depicted as alarmed, upset, and trying to determine who will certainly commit the act. The viewer also has to determine which number is Judas, that will betray Christ. By depicting the step in this manner, da Vinci has infused psychology right into the work.

Unfortunately, this masterpiece of the Renaissance started to deteriorate instantly after da Vinci perfect painting, due mostly to the painting method that he had chosen. Instead of utilizing the an approach of fresco, da Vinci had used tempera over a ground that was mainly gesso in an effort to carry the subtle results of oil paint to fresco. His new method was not successful, and resulted in a surface ar that was topic to mold and flaking.


The last Supper: Leonardo da Vinci’s last Supper, although lot deteriorated, displayed the painter’s mastery the the human kind in figurative composition.


Mona Lisa

Among the works produced by da Vinci in the 16th century is the little portrait known as the Mona Lisa, or La Gioconda, “the laughing one.” In the current era it is may be the most well known painting in the world. Its fame rests, in particular, on the elusive smile on the woman’s face—its mysterious high quality brought about perhaps by the truth that the artist has actually subtly shadowed the corners of the mouth and eyes so that the precise nature the the laugh cannot it is in determined.

The shadowy high quality for i m sorry the job-related is renowned happened called sfumato, the applications of subtle layers of translucent paint so the there is no visible shift between colors, tones, and often objects. Other attributes found in this job-related are the unadorned dress, in i m sorry the eyes and hands have actually no competition from various other details; the dramatic see background, in i beg your pardon the people seems to be in a state of flux; the subdued coloring; and the incredibly smooth nature the the painterly technique, use oils, but applied much favor tempera and blended ~ above the surface ar so the the brushstrokes space indistinguishable. And again, da Vinci is innovating ~ above a type of painting here. Portraits were really common in the Renaissance. However, portraits of ladies were constantly in profile, which was seen as proper and also modest. Here, da Vinci existing a portrait the a woman that not only deals with the viewer but follows them with her eyes.


Mona Lisa: In the Mona Lisa, da Vinci incorporates his sfumato technique to develop a shadowy quality.


Virgin and Child with St. Anne

In the paint Virgin and Child through St. Anne, da Vinci’s ingredient again choose up the layout of figures in a landscape. What provides this painting unusual is that there room two obliquely set figures superimposed. Mary is seated on the knee of her mother, St. Anne. She leans forward to restrain the Christ boy as the plays approximately with a lamb, the sign of his own unavoidable sacrifice. This paint influenced countless contemporaries, consisting of Michelangelo, Raphael, and also Andrea del Sarto. The patterns in its ingredient were adopted in specific by the Venetian artist Tintoretto and also Veronese.


Virgin and also Child with Saint Anne: Virgin and also Child v St. Anne (c. 1510) through Leonardo da Vinci, Louvre Museum.


Michelangelo

Michelangelo to be a 16th century Florentine artist renowned for his masterpieces in sculpture, painting, and architectural design.


Learning Objectives

Discuss Michelangelo’s success in sculpture, painting, and architecture


Key Takeaways

Key PointsMichelangelo created his colossal marble statue, the David, the end of a solitary block that marble, which created his prestige as a sculptor the extraordinary technological skill and also strength that symbolic imagination.In painting, Michelangelo is renowned for the ceiling and also The critical Judgement of the Sistine Chapel, wherein he depicted a complex scheme representing Creation, the Downfall the Man, the Salvation that Man, and the family tree of Christ.Michelangelo’s chief contribution to Saint Peter’s Basilica was the use of a Greek Cross kind and an outside masonry of huge proportions, through every edge filled in through a stairwell or little vestry. The effect is a constant wall-surface the appears broken or urgently at various angles.Key Termscontrapposto: The standing place of a human figure where most of the weight is placed on one foot, and also the other leg is relaxed. The impact of contrapposto in art makes numbers look really naturalistic.Sistine Chapel: The best-known chapel in the Apostolic Palace.

Michelangelo to be a 16th century Florentine artist renowned for his masterpieces in sculpture, painting, and also architectural design. His most well known works are the David, the Last Judgment, and the Basilica of Saint Peter’s in the Vatican.

Sculpture: David

In 1504, Michelangelo was commissioned to develop a colossal marble statue depicting David as a symbol of Florentine freedom. The subsequent masterpiece, David, established the artist’s importance as a sculptor that extraordinary technological skill and also strength of symbolic imagination. David was developed out the a solitary marble block, and also stands bigger than life, as it was originally intended to adorn the Florence Cathedral. The work differs from previous representations in the the Biblical hero is not portrayed with the head that the slain Goliath, as he is in Donatello’s and Verrocchio’s statues; both had represented the hero stand victorious end the head of Goliath. No previously Florentine artist had omitted the huge altogether. Rather of showing up victorious over a foe, David’s confront looks tense and ready because that combat. The tendons in his neck stand the end tautly, his brow is furrowed, and also his eye seem to focus intently on miscellaneous in the distance. Veins bulge the end of his lowered right hand, yet his human body is in a peaceful contrapposto pose, and he carries his sling casually thrown end his left shoulder. In the Renaissance, contrapposto poses were believed of as a distinctive feature of neck sculpture.

The David through Michelangelo, 1504: Michelangelo’s David stands in contrapposto pose.

The sculpture to be intended to be placed on the exterior that the Duomo, and also has become one the the most recognized works the Renaissance sculpture.

Painting: The critical Judgement

In painting, Michelangelo is renowned for his work in the Sistine Chapel. The was originally commissioned to repaint tromp-l’oeil coffers after ~ the initial ceiling developed a crack. Michelangelo lobbied because that a different and more complicated scheme, representing Creation, the Downfall of Man, the Promise of Salvation v the prophets, and the ancestry of Christ. The occupational is component of a bigger scheme the decoration in ~ the chapel the represents lot of the doctrine of the Catholic Church.

The ingredient eventually contained over 300 figures, and had in ~ its facility nine episodes from the book of Genesis, split into 3 groups: God’s development of the Earth, God’s development of Humankind, and their autumn from God’s grace, and lastly, the state of humankind as represented by Noah and his family. Twelve men and also women that prophesied the resulting the Jesus room painted top top the pendentives supporting the ceiling. Amongst the most famous paintings ~ above the ceiling space The creation of Adam, Adam and Eve in the Garden that Eden, the an excellent Flood, the Prophet Isaiah and also the Cumaean Sibyl. The ancestors that Christ space painted roughly the windows.

The fresco the The Last referee on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel was i was delegated by Pope Clement VII, and Michelangelo labored ~ above the project from 1536–1541. The work-related is located on the altar wall surface of the Sistine Chapel, i beg your pardon is not a classic placement for the subject. Typically, last judgement scene were placed on the exit wall of churches as a means to remind the viewer that eternal punishments as they left worship. The Last judgment is a depiction of the 2nd coming of Christ and also the apocalypse; whereby the souls of humanity rise and are assigned come their miscellaneous fates, as judged by Christ, surrounded by the Saints. In contrast to the previously figures Michelangelo painted on the ceiling, the numbers in The last Judgement are greatly muscled and also are in much much more artificial poses, demonstrating just how this work is in the Mannerist style.

In this occupational Michelangelo has rejected the orderly relenten of the critical judgement as established by Medieval tradition in favor of a swirling scene of chaos as each spirit is judged. As soon as the paint was revealed it was heavily criticized for its consist of of timeless imagery as well as for the quantity of nude figures in somewhat suggestive poses. The ok reception the the work received might be tied to the respond to Reformation and also the the supervisory board of Trent, which bring about a choice for more conservative religious art devoid of timeless references. Although a number of figures were made an ext modest through the addition of drapery, the transforms were not made until after the death of Michelangelo, demonstrating the respect and also admiration that was afforded to him during his lifetime.


The critical Judgement: The fresco of The Last judgment on the altar wall surface of the Sistine Chapel was commissioned by Pope Clement VII. Michelangelo worked on the project from 1534–1541.


Architecture: St. Peter’s Basilica

Finally, although other architects were involved, Michelangelo is provided credit for making St. Peter’s Basilica. Michelangelo’s chief donation was the usage of a symmetrical setup of a Greek Cross form and an exterior masonry of enormous proportions, v every edge filled in by a stairwell or little vestry. The result is that a constant wall surface that is urgently or fractured at various angles, doing not have the appropriate angles that commonly define change of direction at the corners of a building. This exterior is surrounding by a giant order the Corinthian pilasters all set at slightly various angles to every other, in keeping with the ever-changing angles of the wall’s surface. Above them the substantial cornice ripples in a consistent band, offering the figure of keeping the whole structure in a state that compression.


St. Peter’s Basillica: Michelangelo designed the dome that St. Peter’s Basilica top top or before 1564, back it to be unfinished when he died.


Mannerism

Mannerist artists began to reject the harmony and ideal proportions that the Renaissance in donate of irrational settings, man-made colors, unclear topic matters, and also elongated forms.


Learning Objectives

Describe the Mannerist style, just how it different from the Renaissance, and reasons why that emerged.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsMannerism came after the High Renaissance and also before the Baroque.The artists who came a generation ~ Raphael and Michelangelo had a dilemma. They can not surpass the great works that had currently been created by Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and also Michelangelo. This is as soon as we begin to view Mannerism emerge.Jacopo da Pontormo (1494–1557) represents the shift from the Renaissance come the Mannerist style.Key TermsMannerism: format of art in Europe from c. 1520–1600. Mannerism came after the High Renaissance and before the Baroque. No every artist painting throughout this duration is taken into consideration a Mannerist artist.

Mannerism is the name offered to a style of arts in Europe native c. 1520–1600. Mannerism came after the High Renaissance and before the Baroque. No every artist painting during this duration is thought about a Mannerist artist, however, and also there is much debate amongst scholars over whether Mannerism have to be considered a separate motion from the High Renaissance, or a stylistic phase of the High Renaissance. Mannerism will be treated together a different art movement here as there are many differences in between the High Renaissance and also the Mannerist styles.

Style

What renders a occupational of art Mannerist? very first we must understand the ideals and goals of the Renaissance. During the Renaissance artists were engaging through classical classical times in a brand-new way. In addition, they developed theories on perspective, and in all methods strived to create works of arts that to be perfect, harmonious, and also showed best depictions the the herbal world. Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo are thought about the artists who got to the greatest achievements in art throughout the Renaissance.

The Renaissance stressed harmony and beauty and no one might create an ext beautiful functions than the great three artists detailed above. The artists who came a generation after had actually a dilemma; they can not surpass the an excellent works the had already been developed by da Vinci, Raphael, and also Michelangelo. This is as soon as we start to see Mannerism emerge. Younger artists trying to execute something brand-new and different began to refuse harmony and ideal proportions in donate of irrational settings, artificial colors, unclear subject matters, and elongated forms.

Jacopo da Pontormo

Jacopo da Pontormo (1494–1557) represents the transition from the Renaissance to the Mannerist style. Take for instance his Deposition native the Cross, an altarpiece the was painted because that a chapel in the Church that Santa Felicita, Florence. The numbers of Mary and also Jesus appear to it is in a direct reference to Michelangelo’s Pieta. Although the work is referred to as a “Deposition,” over there is no cross. Scholars additionally refer come this work-related as the “Entombment” however there is no tomb. This lack of clarity on subject issue is a hallmark of Mannerist painting. In addition, the setup is irrational, almost as if the is not in this world, and the color are much from naturalistic. This work can not have actually been produced by a Renaissance artist. The Mannerist activity stresses various goals and also this work of arts by Pontormo displayed this new, and different style.

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Pontormo, Deposition indigenous the Cross, 1525-1528, Church that Santa Felicita, Florence: This work of art by Pontormo demonstrates the hallmarks of the Mannerist style: unclear topic matter, irrational setting, and also artificial colors.