The answers can more than likely just be discovered through historical resources and techniques,
First, the answer to your second question.
You are watching: July and august have 31 days
The current calendar that a lot of of the western civilization offers is Gregorian Calendar1, which is an advancement over Julian Calendar, which itself was an advancement over Classic Roman Calendar.
Now, on to the first question.
Usually months via 31 and also 30 days come in alternate fashion other than for July and also August which are consecutive. So why execute they both have 31 days?
To answer this, we need to initially look right into the bsci-ch.org of Roman Calendar. The first Romale calendar attributed to legendary Romulus had actually 10 months, and also it started from Martius, i.e. the month we call March. And that have the right to still be checked out in the modern-day calendar this particular day. September, October, November, and December are nine, 10th, 11th and 12th months respectively, however Sept originates from Latin for 7, Oct is for 8, and so on.
After that, tbelow were a pair of (minor) adjustments to the Roguy Calendar before the arrival of Julian Calendar. At that time, tbelow were 12 months, via Iunarius and also Februarius, new months included prior to Martius. And yet, an ordinary year had actually 355 days, however, a tropical solar year, i.e. the period of Earth"s radvancement about the Sun, is around 365.25 days. As such, before this time, Romans offered to include a month referred to as Mensis Intercalaris of 27/28-days between Februarius and Martius to balance this. (the thorough scheme deserve to be checked out in the wikipedia short article on Julian Calendar).
To readjust this, the calendar was considerably overhauled under the reign of Julius Caesar. One of the aftermath of this reform was Quintilis (Quint - 5; so now the 7th month), which currently had 31 days, maintained 31 days; and also Sextilis (Sex - 6; so now the 8th month), which earlier had actually 29 days, obtained a rise of 2 days and currently had 31 days.If one is curious, the net change was January (Iunarius), Sextilis (August), and December acquired 2 days each, whereas Aprilis (April), Iunius (June), September, and November acquired 1 day each.
Now for the names of these months. After the death of Julius Caesar, Quintilis was recalled to Julius in his honor, which is the origin of July. Similarly, Sextilis was recalled to Augustus in the honor of then reigning emperor Augustus.
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Interestingly, succeeding emperors Tiberius, Caligula, Domitian and Commodus (unsuccessfully) tried to rename September after themselves, yet failed.
1 Technically, present calendar - the UTC is a further change of Gregorian Calendar, bereason a Leap Second is periodically added, to keep the moment of day cshed to mean solar time. But for all useful objectives, it"s not considerably various from Gregorian Calendar.