Too dry because that ferns and moss

Near the end of the Carboniferous period, around 300 million year ago, the soil on planet got a many drier than it had been before. It was drier because bowl tectonics was bringing every one of the floor together into one large continent, Pangaea. Tree that necessary a the majority of water, choose ferns and moss and mushrooms, started to die out.

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Carboniferous PeriodWhat room plate tectonics?Evolution of fernsWhat about moss?All our biology articles

Evolution the gymnosperms

Plants that can live through much less water walk better. That was a big advantage in the drier climate. Therefore these dried land plants quickly spread almost everywhere the new large continent the Pangaea. This plants to be pine trees, or conifers. We also call them gymnosperms, meaning “naked seeds”.

Why space they conifers?

They’re called conifers since they had pine cones, indigenous the Latin native “conus” meaning cone and “ferre” meaning to carry. Within the pine tree cones were seed to make tiny pine tree babies.

How seeds evolvedWhat space spores?Plant reproduction

Trees that could make seeds had a large advantage over earlier trees and ferns that only made spores. Spores were delicate and had come land on other wet in bespeak to save them alive so they can grow new plants. If the spore didn’t hit a good place ideal away, it would die. So all plants the made spores had actually to flourish near water.

But seeds had a tough coating top top them, and they could live a long time, blowing roughly in the wind, till they came to a good place come grow. If they fell on dry land, they could wait until a merganser season started before they began to flourish – few of these seeds can wait for years and also years, also centuries if they had actually to.


Ponderosa pine cones

Cold, dried places

Thanks to their seeds, pine trees might grow in drier locations than the larger plants. This was around the same time as the an initial crocodiles to be evolving, and for the same factor – the pine trees had actually hard seeds that can make babies there is no water, and the crocodiles had hard eggs that can do the same thing.

More around crocodilesThe Permian periodEvolution of eggs

Because all of the land was gathered with each other in one big continent in ~ this time, jaw trees might spread quickly over all of the floor on Earth. During the Permian period, from about 290 million years back to around 245 million years ago, it was cold and also dry, and pine trees developed that might live in very cold weather.

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Flowering plants evolve

Later, when plate tectonics split up the continent again, all of the continents had actually pine tree on them. But when flower plants like fruit trees, flowers, and grasses evolved, in the Cretaceous period, around 145 million year ago, they conveniently took the ar of pine trees in warmer areas. Pine tree today grow mainly in cooler places wherein it is also cold for the flower plants, though there are still countless pine trees even in warmer places.

Learn by doing – Collecting jaw ConesAnd finally flowers!

Bibliography and also further reading about gymnosperms or pine tree trees: