Data space the principal resources of an organization.Data save on computer in computer system systems form a hierarchy extending from a solitary bit to adatabase, the major record-keeping entity of a firm. Each higher rung the this hierarchy isorganized indigenous the components listed below it.

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Data space logically organized into:

1. Bits (characters)

2. Fields

3. Records

4. Files

5. Databases

Bit (Character) - a little bit is the the smallest unit ofdata representation (value of a little may it is in a 0 or 1). Eight bits make a byte which canrepresent a personality or a unique symbol in a personality code.

Field - a field is composed of a group ofcharacters. A data field represents an attribute (a properties or quality) that someentity (object, person, place, or event).

Record - a record represents a repertoire ofattributes that define a real-world entity. A record consists of fields, v each fielddescribing an attribute of the entity.

File - a group of connected records. Documents arefrequently divide by the application for which castle are mostly used (employeefile). A primary key in a record is the ar (or fields) who valueidentifies a record amongst others in a data file.

Database - is an incorporated collection oflogically related records or files. A database consolidates records formerly stored inseparate papers into a common pool that data documents that provides data because that manyapplications. The data is regulated by systems software called database monitoring systems(DBMS). The data stored in a database is elevation of the applications programs utilizing itand that the varieties of secondary storage devices on which the is stored.

6.2 file Environment and its Limitations

There are three principal methods of organizing files,of which only two administer the direct accessibility necessary in on-line systems.

File company

Data documents are organized so as to facilitate access torecords and also to certain their reliable storage. A tradeoff between these 2 requirementsgenerally exists: if rapid accessibility is required, much more storage is compelled to do itpossible.

Access come a record for analysis it is theessential procedure on data. There are two species of access:

1. Sequential access - is performed once records room accessed in the stimulate they space stored. Sequential access is the main accessibility mode just in batch systems, where documents are used and also updated at regular intervals.

2. Direct access - on-line processing requires direct access, by which a record have the right to be accessed there is no accessing the records in between it and also the beginning of the file. The primary an essential serves to identify the needed record.

There room three methods of document organization:

1. Sequential organization

2. Indexed-sequential organization

3. Direct organization

Sequential Organization

In sequential organization records space physicallystored in a mentioned order according to a an essential field in every record.

Advantages the sequential access:

1. It is fast and also efficient when dealing with huge volumes of data that have to be handle periodically (batch system).

Disadvantages the sequential access:

1. Calls for that all brand-new transactions it is in sorted into the suitable sequence for sequential access processing.

2. Locating, storing, modifying, deleting, or adding records in the record requires rearranging the file.

3. This technique is too slow to handle applications requiring immediate updating or responses.

Indexed-Sequential Organization

In the indexed-sequential records method, documents arephysically save on computer in sequential stimulate on a magnetic disc or various other direct accessibility storagedevice based on the key field of every record. Each record contains an index the referencesone or more an essential fields of each data record to its storage location address.

Direct Organization

Direct record organization provides the more quickly directaccess to records. Once using direct accessibility methods, records perform not need to be arranged inany specific sequence on storage media. Attributes of the direct access methodinclude:

1. Computers must store track that the storage location of each record using a selection of straight organization techniques so the data can be retrieved as soon as needed.

2. Brand-new transactions" data execute not need to be sorted.

3. Handling that requires immediate responses or update is conveniently performed.

6.3 Database atmosphere

A database is an arranged collection of interrelateddata the serves a variety of applications in one enterprise. The database stores no onlythe worths of the qualities of various entities but also the relationships in between theseentities. A database is regulated by a database management system (DBMS), a equipment softwarethat provides assistance in controlling databases common by numerous users.


1. Helps organize data because that effective accessibility by a selection of users through different access needs and also for reliable storage.

2. It provides it possible to create, access, maintain, and also control databases.

3. With a DBMS, data have the right to be integrated and presented ~ above demand.

Advantages of a database administration approach:

1. Staying clear of uncontrolled data redundancy and preventing inconsistency

2. Program-data independence

3. Flexible access to shared data

4. Advantages of centralized control that data

6.4 levels of Data an interpretation in Databases

The user view of a DBMS becomes the basis for the datemodelling steps where the relationships between data aspects are identified. This datamodels define the reasonable relationships among the data facets needed to assistance a basicbusiness process. A DBMS serves as a logical framework (schema, subschema, and physical)on i beg your pardon to base the physical architecture of databases and also the breakthrough of applicationprograms to support the service processes the the organization. A DBMS permits us todefine a database on three levels:

1. Schema - is an overall logical check out ofthe relationships between data in a database.

2.Subschema - is a logical view ofdata relationships required to support specific end user applications programs the willaccess the database.

3.Physical - watch at just how data isphysically arranged, stored, and also accessed ~ above the magnetic disks and also other secondarystorage gadgets of a computer system.

A DBMS gives the language, dubbed datadefinition language (DDL), for specifying the database objects on the 3 levels.It additionally provides a language because that manipulating the data, dubbed the data manipulationlanguage (DML), which provides it feasible to accessibility records, readjust values ofattributes, and also delete or insert records.

6.5 Data Models or exactly how to RepresentRelationships in between Data

A data design is a method for arranging databases onthe reasonable level, the level that the schema and also subschemas. The main issue in together amodel is how to stand for relationships amongst database records. The relationship amongthe plenty of individual documents in databases are based on one of numerous logical datastructures or models. DBMS are designed to provide end users v quick, easy access toinformation stored in databases. Three major models include:

1. Ordered Structure

2. Network Structure

3. Relational Structure


Early mainframe DBMS packages provided the hierarchicalstructure, in which:

1. Relationships in between records type a power structure or tree like structure.

2. Records are dependent and also arranged in multilevel structures, consisting of one root record & any variety of subordinate levels.

3. Relationships among the documents are one-to-many, because each data facet is related just to one element over it.

4. Data element or record at the highest level of the power structure is referred to as the root element. Any kind of data aspect can it is in accessed by moving progressively downward from the root and along the branches of the tree till the preferred record is located.

Network Structure:

The network structure:

1. Deserve to represent more facility logical relationships, and also is still supplied by countless mainframe DBMS packages.

2. Enables many-to-many relationship amongst records. The is, the network model can access a data aspect by adhering to one of number of paths, because any kind of data element or record deserve to be regarded any variety of other data elements.

Relational Structure:

The relational structure:

1. Most well-known of the three database structures.

2. Provided by many microcomputer DBMS packages, and many minicomputer and mainframe systems.

3. Data aspects within the database space stored in the form of basic tables. Tables are connected if they contain usual fields.

4. DBMS packages based upon the relational design can connect data aspects from miscellaneous tables to provide information to users.

Evaluation that Database Structures

Hierarchical Data Structure Ease through which data have the right to be stored and retrieved in structured, routine types of transactions.

Ease with which data can be extracted because that reporting purposes.

Routine types of transaction handling is fast and efficiently.

Hierarchical one-to numerous relationships need to be specified in advance, and are no flexible. Cannot conveniently handle ad hoc requests for information.

Modifying a hierarchical database structure is complex.

Great transaction of redundancy.

Requires expertise of a programming language.

Network Structure More functional that the ordered model.Ability to provide sophisticated logical relationships amongst the records Network many-to-many relationships must be stated in advanceUser is minimal to retrieving data that deserve to be accessed utilizing the created links in between records. Cannot easily handle ad hoc requests because that information.

Requires understanding of a programming language.

Relational Structure Flexible in that it deserve to handle ad hoc information requests.Easy because that programmers to work-related with. End users deserve to use this model with litter effort or training.

Easier to preserve than the hierarchical and also network models.

Cannot process large amounts of business transactions as quickly and efficiently together the hierarchical and network models.
6.6 Relational Databases

A relational database is a repertoire of tables. Such adatabase is reasonably easy for finish users come understand. Relational databases affordflexibility across the data and also are straightforward to understand and modify.

1. Select, i beg your pardon selects indigenous a specified table the rows that satisfy a given condition.

2. Project, which selects native a offered table the specified attribute values

3. Join, which builds a brand-new table from two specified tables.

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The strength of the relational model derives indigenous the joinoperation. That is precisely due to the fact that records are pertained to one another through a joinoperation, quite than with links, that we execute not need a predefined accessibility path. Thejoin operation is also highly time-consuming, requiring access to numerous records save ondisk in order to discover the necessary records.

6.7 SQL - A Relational query Language

Structured Query language (SQL) has come to be aninternational standard access language for defining and also manipulating data in databases. Itis a data-definition-and-management language the most well-known DBMS, including somenonrelational ones. SQL may be used as one independent query language to define the objectsin a database, get in the data right into the database, and accessibility the data. The so-calledembedded SQL is also detailed for programming in procedural language (Ahost