Explanation:

DNA is a double-stranded helix. The two sugar-phosphate backbones are connected by hydrogen bonds that for between nitrogenous bases. The DNA bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). In DNA, adenine always pairs with thyine and cytosine always pairs with guanine. These pairings occur because of geometry of the base,s allow hydrogen bonds to form only between the "right" pairs. Adenine and thymine will form two hydrogen bonds, whereas cytosine and guanine will form three hydrogen bonds. This hydrogen bonding brings stability to the DNA. 


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Example Question #42 : Dna


The double-helix structure of DNA was discovered using X-ray crystallography (Rosalind Franklin) and elucidated by Watson and Crick. Before this discovery, it was previously known that DNA is comprised of four nucleotide bases: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. Adenine always binds to thymine, while guanine always binds to cytosine.

You are watching: In dna adenine always pairs with


You analyze a double-helix and determine that 17% of the helix is made up of the nucleotide adenine (A). What percentage of the same helix must be comprised of the nucleotide guanine (G)?


Possible Answers:

*


*



*


*


Correct answer:


Explanation:

Nucleotides that bind together will always be present in equal amounts in a sample of DNA. This principle is known as Chargaff"s rule. Essentially, the percentage of adenine will be equal to the percentage of thymine, while the percentage of guanine will be equal to the percentage of cytosine.

Together, all of the percentages must add up to 100%.

We know that the sample is 17% adenine, which means it is also 17% thymine.

We can use this equation to solve for the percentage of guanine.

Guanine and cytosine pair together, which means they will be present in equal amounts. To find the percentage of guanine, we can simply divide by 2.

You can check your answer if needed:


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Example Question #43 : Dna


In complementary base pairing of DNA, guanine always pairs with __________ and adenine always pairs with __________.


Possible Answers:

guanine . . . adenine


thymine . . . cytosine


cytosine . . . uracil


cytosine . . . thymine


Correct answer:

cytosine . . . thymine


Explanation:

The four nitrogenous bases of DNA are thymine, adenine, guanine, and cytosine. Guanine and cytosine are bound together by three hydrogen bonds; whereas, adenine and thymine are bound together by two hydrogen bonds. This is known as complementary base pairing. In RNA, the nucleotide thymine is replaced by the nucleotide uracil.


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Example Question #44 : Dna


Which type of bond is responsible for holding complementary base pairs together?


Possible Answers:

Ionic bond


Single covalent bond


Hydrogen bond


Double covalent bond


Correct answer:

Hydrogen bond


Explanation:

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a chain of two strands of nucleotide that are linked to one another through hydrogen bonding and arranged into a structure known as a double-helix. Nucleotides are molecular components of DNA that are composed of a deoxyribose sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group. The backbone of DNA consists of phosphodiester bonds made up of interchanging phosphate groups and deoxyribose sugars. The four nitrogenous bases of DNA are thymine, adenine, guanine, and cytosine. Guanine and cytosine are bonded together by three hydrogen bonds; whereas, adenine and thymine are bonded together by two hydrogen bonds. This is known as complementary base pairing. One strand of the DNA double helix will be in a 5’

*
 3’ direction in relation to the –OH group on the deoxyribose sugar. The other strand is oriented in the 3’
*
 5’ direction.


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Example Question #45 : Dna


The orientation of the two strands of the DNA molecule are considered to be __________.


Possible Answers:

antiparallel


parallel


perpendicular


transverse


Correct answer:

antiparallel


Explanation:

DNA is a chain of two strands of nucleotides that are linked to one another through hydrogen bonds and arranged into a structure known as a double-helix. Nucleotides are molecular components of DNA that are composed of a deoxyribose sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group. The backbone of DNA consists of phosphodiester bonds made up of interchanging phosphate groups and deoxyribose sugars. The four nitrogenous bases of DNA are thymine, adenine, guanine, and cytosine. Guanine and cytosine are bound together by three hydrogen bonds; whereas, adenine and thymine are bound together by two hydrogen bonds. This is known as complementary base pairing. One strand of the DNA double helix will be in a 5’

*
 3’ direction in relation to the
*
 group on the deoxyribose sugar. The other strand is oriented in the 3’
*
 5’ direction. This is why DNA is considered antiparallel.


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Example Question #46 : Dna


You analyze a double-helix and determine that 17% of the helix is made up of the nucleotide adenine (A). What percentage of the same helix must be comprised of the nucleotide guanine (G)?


Possible Answers:
Correct answer:


Explanation:

Nucleotides that bind together will always be present in equal amounts in a sample of DNA. This principle is known as Chargaff"s rule. Essentially, the percentage of adenine will be equal to the percentage of thymine, while the percentage of guanine will be equal to the percentage of cytosine.

Together, all of the percentages must add up to 100%.

We know that the sample is 17% adenine, which means it is also 17% thymine.

We can use this equation to solve for the percentage of guanine.

Guanine and cytosine pair together, which means they will be present in equal amounts. To find the percentage of guanine, we can simply divide by 2.

You can check your answer if needed:


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Example Question #47 : Dna


DNA polymerase is used to crate a new DNA strand based on the following template strand.

5"-GCCTCATGA-3"


Which of the following shows the correct complementary strand?


Possible Answers:

5"-CGGAGTACT-3"


5"-UCAUGAGGC-3"


5"-AGTACTCCG-3"


5"-TCATGAGGC-3"


Correct answer:

5"-TCATGAGGC-3"


Explanation:

When determining the complementary strand, remember that it will be written in the opposite direction of the template strand. This means that the new strand"s 5" end will begin at the 3" end of the template strand. The complementary strand will also be composed of the nucleotides that complete the base pairs found in DNA (A-T and C-G).

Template: 5"-GCCTCATGA-3"

Answer: 5"-TCATGAGGC-3"

To see these pairs match up, the 3" end of the answer must align with the 5" end of the template.

Template: 5"-GCCTCATGA-3"

Answer (3"-5"): 3"-CGGAGTACT-5"


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Example Question #48 : Dna


Which of the following bases are purines?


Possible Answers:

Guanine and cytosine


Cytosine, thymine, and uracil


Adenine and thymine


Adenine, thymine, and uracil


Adenine and guanine


Correct answer:

Adenine and guanine


Explanation:

There are two classes of bases in DNA and RNA: purines and pyrimidines. The difference between these classes is the structure of the base. Purines have two rings in their structure, while pyrimidines have only one. Purines will pair with pyrimidines.

The purines are adenine and guanine, and the pyrimidines are thymine, cytosine, and uracil. You can remember that the bases that contain a "y" are pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine).


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Example Question #49 : Dna


What is a common feature of all the nucleotides in DNA?


Possible Answers:

Each of the nucleotides can bind to any of the other ones


They are bound to a sugar backbone


They are the same nucleotides used in RNA


They contain the same atoms in different structures


They are all used in equal amounts in a strand of DNA


Correct answer:

They are bound to a sugar backbone


Explanation:

There are four nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. A nucleotide is composed of one of these bases bound to a deoxyribose sugar and a phosphate group. Polymers of nucleotides form strands of DNA, which adhere to one another by hydrogen bonding between the bases.

Each strand of DNA is unique and may contain any ratio of the nitrogenous bases, but strands of DNA will always be complementary to one another. The structure of the bases requires that adenine bind to thymine and cytosine bind to guanine to maintain the structural integrity of the DNA molecule. RNA does not contain thymine, and instead uses uracil.


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Example Question #50 : Dna


The DNA of a eukaryotic cell is found to contain 30% cytosine. The DNA also contains __________.


Possible Answers:

30% thymine


20% guanine


20% adenine


30% adenine


Correct answer:

20% adenine


Explanation:

There are four bases in DNA: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. Adenine always pairs with thymine, so the number of adenine residues always equals the number of thymine residues. Guanine always pairs with cytosine, which means they are always present in equal amounts as well. If one strand contains three cytosine bases and five thymine bases, then the opposite strand must contain three guanine bases and five adenine bases.

The trick to this problem is remembering that the sum of all four bases by percentage must be 100%.

*

We know that 30% of the bases are cytosine. Since cytosine pairs with guanine, there is also 30% guanine.

*

*

That leave us with 40% of the bases being thymine and adenine.

*

Since adenine and thymine will be equal, each will represent 20% of the DNA composition.

*

*


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