Explanation:

DNA is a double-stranded helix. The two sugar-phosphate backbones are associated by hydrogen bonds the for between nitrogenous bases. The DNA bases space adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and also guanine (G). In DNA, adenine always pairs through thyine and also cytosine constantly pairs through guanine. These pairings occur because of geometry of the base,s enable hydrogen bond to kind only between the "right" pairs. Adenine and also thymine will type two hydrogen bonds, whereas cytosine and guanine will type three hydrogen bonds. This hydrogen bonding brings stability to the DNA. 


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Example concern #42 : Dna


The double-helix framework of DNA was found using X-ray crystallography (Rosalind Franklin) and elucidated through Watson and Crick. Prior to this discovery, it was previously recognized that DNA is made up of 4 nucleotide bases: adenine, thymine, guanine, and also cytosine. Adenine constantly binds come thymine, when guanine always binds come cytosine.

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You analyze a double-helix and also determine that 17% of the helix is consisted of of the nucleotide adenin (A). What percentage of the exact same helix need to be consisted of of the nucleotide guanine (G)?


Possible Answers:

*


*



*


*


Correct answer:


Explanation:

Nucleotides that bind with each other will constantly be existing in equal quantities in a sample that DNA. This principle is well-known as Chargaff"s rule. Essentially, the portion of adenine will certainly be equal to the portion of thymine, while the percent of guanine will be same to the percentage of cytosine.

Together, all of the percentages must add up come 100%.

We know that the sample is 17% adenine, which means it is additionally 17% thymine.

We can use this equation to fix for the portion of guanine.

Guanine and also cytosine pair together, which way they will certainly be existing in same amounts. To find the portion of guanine, we deserve to simply division by 2.

You can check your prize if needed:


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Example question #43 : Dna


In complementary basic pairing of DNA, guanine constantly pairs through __________ and adenine constantly pairs with __________.


Possible Answers:

guanine . . . Adenine


thymine . . . Cytosine


cytosine . . . Uracil


cytosine . . . Thymine


Correct answer:

cytosine . . . Thymine


Explanation:

The four nitrogenous bases the DNA space thymine, adenine, guanine, and cytosine. Guanine and cytosine are bound together by 3 hydrogen bonds; whereas, adenine and also thymine are bound together by 2 hydrogen bonds. This is known as complementary base pairing. In RNA, the nucleotide thymine is replaced by the nucleotide uracil.


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Example question #44 : Dna


Which type of link is responsible for holding complementary base pairs together?


Possible Answers:

Ionic bond


Single covalent bond


Hydrogen bond


Double covalent bond


Correct answer:

Hydrogen bond


Explanation:

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a chain of 2 strands that nucleotide that are connected to one one more through hydrogen bonding and also arranged right into a structure known as a double-helix. Nucleotides space molecular materials of DNA that room composed that a deoxyribose sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group. The backbone that DNA is composed of phosphodiester bonds consisted of of interchanging phosphate groups and also deoxyribose sugars. The four nitrogenous bases of DNA are thymine, adenine, guanine, and also cytosine. Guanine and cytosine space bonded with each other by three hydrogen bonds; whereas, adenine and thymine are bonded together by two hydrogen bonds. This is known as complementary basic pairing. One strand that the DNA double helix will be in a 5’

*
 3’ direction in relationship to the –OH group on the deoxyribose sugar. The various other strand is oriented in the 3’
*
 5’ direction.


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Example concern #45 : Dna


The orientation of the 2 strands that the DNA molecule are considered to be __________.


Possible Answers:

antiparallel


parallel


perpendicular


transverse


Correct answer:

antiparallel


Explanation:

DNA is a chain of two strands of nucleotides that are linked to one an additional through hydrogen bonds and arranged into a structure recognized as a double-helix. Nucleotides space molecular contents of DNA that space composed the a deoxyribose sugar, a nitrogenous base, and also a phosphate group. The backbone of DNA consists of phosphodiester bonds consisted of of interchanging phosphate groups and deoxyribose sugars. The four nitrogenous bases that DNA space thymine, adenine, guanine, and also cytosine. Guanine and cytosine room bound together by 3 hydrogen bonds; whereas, adenine and thymine space bound together by 2 hydrogen bonds. This is known as complementary basic pairing. One strand that the DNA double helix will certainly be in a 5’

*
 3’ direction in relationship to the
*
 group top top the deoxyribose sugar. The other strand is oriented in the 3’
*
 5’ direction. This is why DNA is taken into consideration antiparallel.


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Example concern #46 : Dna


You analyze a double-helix and also determine the 17% of the helix is made up of the nucleotide adenin (A). What percentage of the exact same helix have to be comprised of the nucleotide guanine (G)?


Possible Answers:
Correct answer:


Explanation:

Nucleotides the bind with each other will constantly be current in equal quantities in a sample of DNA. This rule is well-known as Chargaff"s rule. Essentially, the portion of adenine will be same to the portion of thymine, if the percent of guanine will be same to the portion of cytosine.

Together, all of the percentages must add up to 100%.

We know that the sample is 17% adenine, which means it is also 17% thymine.

We can use this equation to fix for the portion of guanine.

Guanine and also cytosine pair together, which method they will be current in same amounts. To find the percentage of guanine, we deserve to simply division by 2.

You can check your answer if needed:


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Example question #47 : Dna


DNA polymerase is provided to crate a new DNA strand based upon the following template strand.

5"-GCCTCATGA-3"


Which that the complying with shows the exactly complementary strand?


Possible Answers:

5"-CGGAGTACT-3"


5"-UCAUGAGGC-3"


5"-AGTACTCCG-3"


5"-TCATGAGGC-3"


Correct answer:

5"-TCATGAGGC-3"


Explanation:

When determining the complementary strand, remember that it will be created in the opposite direction the the layout strand. This means that the brand-new strand"s 5" end will begin at the 3" finish of the layout strand. The safety strand will also be written of the nucleotides that complete the basic pairs discovered in DNA (A-T and C-G).

Template: 5"-GCCTCATGA-3"

Answer: 5"-TCATGAGGC-3"

To view these pairs enhance up, the 3" finish of the answer need to align with the 5" end of the template.

Template: 5"-GCCTCATGA-3"

Answer (3"-5"): 3"-CGGAGTACT-5"


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Example question #48 : Dna


Which of the complying with bases room purines?


Possible Answers:

Guanine and also cytosine


Cytosine, thymine, and uracil


Adenine and thymine


Adenine, thymine, and also uracil


Adenine and guanine


Correct answer:

Adenine and also guanine


Explanation:

There are two class of bases in DNA and RNA: purines and also pyrimidines. The difference in between these class is the structure of the base. Purines have two ring in their structure, if pyrimidines have only one. Purines will pair with pyrimidines.

The purines space adenine and guanine, and also the pyrimidines are thymine, cytosine, and uracil. You deserve to remember that the bases that contain a "y" room pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine).


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Example question #49 : Dna


What is a typical feature of every the nucleotides in DNA?


Possible Answers:

Each the the nucleotides deserve to bind to any of the various other ones


They space bound come a street backbone


They space the very same nucleotides provided in RNA


They save the very same atoms in various structures


They room all offered in equal amounts in a strand that DNA


Correct answer:

They are bound to a sugar backbone


Explanation:

There are four nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and also thymine. A nucleotide is written of one of these bases bound to a deoxyribose sugar and also a phosphate group. Polymers that nucleotides form strands that DNA, i m sorry adhere come one another by hydrogen bonding in between the bases.

Each strand that DNA is unique and may contain any type of ratio that the nitrogenous bases, but strands of DNA will constantly be complementary come one another. The framework of the bases calls for that adenine bind to thymine and also cytosine tie to guanine to preserve the structural integrity that the DNA molecule. RNA does not contain thymine, and instead uses uracil.


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Example question #50 : Dna


The DNA the a eukaryotic cell is found to save on computer 30% cytosine. The DNA also contains __________.


Possible Answers:

30% thymine


20% guanine


20% adenine


30% adenine


Correct answer:

20% adenine


Explanation:

There are 4 bases in DNA: adenine, thymine, guanine, and also cytosine. Adenine always pairs with thymine, therefore the number of adenine residues constantly equals the number of thymine residues. Guanine always pairs v cytosine, which means they are always present in equal quantities as well. If one strand has three cytosine bases and five thymine bases, climate the the contrary strand must contain three guanine bases and also five adenin bases.

The trick come this problem is remembering the the amount of all 4 bases by percentage should be 100%.

*

We understand that 30% the the bases room cytosine. Because cytosine pairs v guanine, there is likewise 30% guanine.

*

*

That leave us v 40% that the bases gift thymine and adenine.

*

Since adenine and also thymine will certainly be equal, every will stand for 20% the the DNA composition.

*

*


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