For answers to numerous of the inquiries please refer to the reading List for exam #3. Also shot the Wayne"s Word index & economic Plant Families. Answers to many of the fruit kind questions space in the Fruit to know Outline. The following hints & hyperlinks room designed to assist students prize the questions about plant genetics.
Introduction To genetic Terms offered In these Questions:
Note: wherein I have actually used the hatchet "chromosome complement," i am simply referring to the "complete" chromosome makeup of the nucleus of a cell in the flowering plant life cycle. The Merriam Webster Third new International dictionary has numerous definitions because that complement, but the one i am utilizing is "the quantity or number forced to fill a point or do it complete." on the chromosome concerns I desire the "complete" chromosomes (represented through letters) for various cells and nuclei in the plant life cycle. Because that example, if ABCD describes the chromosomes of an egg and also abcd refers to the chromosomes that a sperm; then AaBbCcDd describes the complete chromosomes of a fertilized egg or zygote (ABCD + abcd = AaBbCcDd). In a variety of questions I have actually referred come the chromosome complement of a details cell or nucleus, such together the zygote. In this case the chromosome match of the zygote would certainly be AaBbCcDd. The chromosome match of the embryo would also be AaBbCcDd. Simply think the the chromosome match as the complete chromosome assembly of a cabinet where big and tiny case letter stand for the really chromosomes. If there is one of each letter, then the cabinet is haploid (e.g. ABCD or abcd). If there space two of each letter, then the cell is diploid (e.g. AaBbCcDd). If there space three of each letter, then the cabinet is triploid (e.g. AAaBBbCCcDDd). If over there are four of every letter, climate the cell is tetraploid (e.g. AAaaBBbbCCccDDdd).
In the following questions, the term haploid (1n) refers to one set of chromosomes. This is commonly the variety of chromosomes found in the single nuclei of sex cell (gametes). In the flowering tree life cycle, this is likewise the chromosome number of the three nuclei within a germinated pollen grain (pollen tube) and the eight nuclei in ~ an embryo sac. In plants, the haploid component of the life cycle is referred to as the gametophyte. The regular haploid number for a human egg or sperm is 23 chromosomes (n = 23). The term diploid refers to two set of chromosomes resulting from the union the the sperm and the egg. This is typically the variety of chromosomes found in the nuclei of human body cells (somatic cells) the a plant or animal. In plants, the diploid part of the life bike is dubbed the sporophyte. In a common human, the diploid number is 46 chromosomes (2n = 46). The following link to life bike patterns might be valuable in expertise the gametophyte and sporophyte parts of a life cycle. In the diagrams, everything above the red horizontal line is diploid (sporophyte) and also everything below the red line is haploid (gametophyte). The terms sporophyte and also gametophyte are offered in the life cycles the plants, fungi and also algae, yet not animals.Life bicycle Patterns: Human, Moss, Fern & flowering PlantThe somatic (sporophyte) cells of plants generally have more than two sets that chromosomes and are termed polyploid. Lock are acquired from an egg or sperm the contained much more than one set of chromosomes. Because that example, if a diploid egg cabinet (2n= 14) unites with a haploid sperm cabinet (n = 7), the resulting zygote will certainly be triploid (3n) through a complete of 21 chromosomes (3n = 21). Gametes that carry more than one collection of chromosomes room induced by treating flowers and buds with colchicine. This is specifically true that hybrid fruits and also vegetables where polyploidy often results in the bigger size that vegetables, fruits and flowers. Polyploid plants may be triploid (three sets of chromosomes), tetraploid (four sets), pentaploid (five sets), hexaploid (six sets), and may go all the means to octoploid (eight sets). Usually odd polyploids, such together triploid plants, room sterile and also cannot produce viable gametes. Gametes are created by a special type of cell department known as meiosis. Throughout prophase i of meiosis, the matching (homologous) maternal and paternal chromosomes the the seed and pollen parents need to pair up v each other in a process called synapsis. Triploid plants generally exhibit synaptic failure since there is a third collection of chromosomes that has actually no homologous set to pair up with. Because triploid tree cannot produce viable gametes, they are generally seedless. The commercial benefits of seedless watermelons and also bananas are readily apparent. Even-numbered polyploids (such as tetraploid plants) are generally fertile because all the maternal and paternal to adjust of chromosomes have actually a homologous set of chromosomes come pair increase with. Therefore, tetraploid plants can produce seeds. Because that propagation purposes, productive tetraploid hybrids are economically desirable.See Plant that Produces ColchicineSometimes diploid (2n) hybrids space sterile and seedless, even though they have two set of chromosomes. This is especially true once the seed and pollen parents room two different varieties (interspecific hybrids) or different genera (bigeneric hybrids). Again, the sterility problem relates to synaptic failure during meiosis. The maternal and paternal to adjust of chromosomes perform not pair increase properly since they come native different varieties and room not truly homologous. A great example that this type of sterility is the diploid (2n) rabbage result from a cross in between a radish (Raphanus sativus) and also a cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The tetraploid (4n) rabbage hybrid is fertile because the 2 sets that radish chromosomes can pair up v each other, and also the 2 sets of cabbage chromosomes deserve to pair up v each other.Keeping monitor of the chromosome number in plant hybridization deserve to be a small confusing. Because that example, the diploid variety of the rye plant (sporophyte) is 14. We deserve to represent the two sets that rye chromosomes as DD, wherein D=7. The gametes the rye are haploid and also carry only one collection of chromosomes (D). Bread wheat is a hexaploid (6n) created of 6 sets of chromosomes (AA, BB & CC), each collection with 7 chromosomes (A=7, B=7, C=7). Therefore, the number of chromosomes in the wheat hexaploid sporophyte (AABBCC) is 42. The gametes that bread wheat lug three set of chromosomes (ABC), a total of 21 chromosomes(3n = 21). Triticale (Triticosecale) is a bigeneric hybrid in between bread wheat (Triticum aestivum n=21) and also rye (Secale cereale n=7). The resulting hybrid (ABCD) has one set of rye chromosomes (D) and 3 sets of wheat chromosomes (ABC), a total of 28 chromosomes (7 + 21). It is sterile because the rye (D) collection has no homologous collection to pair up with throughout synapsis. This sterile hybrid seedling is treated through colchicine to create a plant with twice as numerous sets the chromosomes (i.e. 2A"s, 2B"s, 2C"s and 2 D"s), a full of 56 chromosomes (8 x 7 = 56). The fertile hybrid is an octoploid (8n) because it consists of 8 sets of chromosomes (8n = 56).
More Information about Plant Genetics:Apples: Polyploid VarietiesBananas: Seedless TriploidsCereals: some Polyploid HybridsGrapes: part Seedless CultivarsSterile Hybrids (Including The Mule)Mustard family Vegetable HybridsTomatoes: genetically EngineeredWatermelons: Seedless Melons
questions 1-12: see bisexual flower diagram in Flowering tree Article.Questions 13-26: several of the matching options are vegetative tree parts frequently described and also illustrated in general botany textbooks and also dictionaries: Petiole (the stalk the a leaf); tongue (the expanded or flattened component of a leaf); stolon (a stem trailing over the ground and also rooting wherein the pipeline arise); rhizome (a scaly, underground stem that produces irpari stems over and roots below; tuber (an enlarged, subterranean stem that typically arises in ~ the reminder of a rhizome); pear (an upright subterranean stem surrounded by overlapping, fleshy scales); corm (an secret stem there is no overlapping scales or with only a few scales); storage roots (enlarged root that frequently occur in clusters and also without the "eyes" or sprout of a tuber); thorn (a amendment sharp-pointed stem); spine (a amendment sharp-pointed leaf); herbaceous (a plant that lacks woody tissue); perennial (a plant the blooms each year, the herbaceous stems frequently dying earlier to a woody rootstock after flowering); annual (a herbaceous tree that stays for one year); biennial (a herbaceous plant that blooms throughout the second year and then dies). Click on the following attach for illustrations of vegetative terminology:Botany 115 Vegetative TerminologyFlowering tree Life Cycle:In the flowering tree life cycle, the haploid generation is reduced to a germinated pollen grain containing 3 nuclei and a 7-celled embryo sac comprise eight nuclei. Diploid microspore mommy cells within the anther undergo meiosis (microsporogenesis) forming haploid microspores (each mother cell dividing into 4 microspores). The microspores construct into binucleate pollen grains, each containing a tube nucleus and a generative nucleus. When the pollen serial lands on a receptive stigma that grows right into an elongate pollen tube containing a tube nucleus and also a generative nucleus, the latter of i beg your pardon divides into two sperm nuclei.
A binucleate angiosperm pollen serial containing a generative nucleus and a pipe nucleus. After the pollen grain germinates into a pollen tube, the generative cell nucleus divides into two sperm nuclei. Due to the fact that the generative nucleus and sperm nuclei save on computer cytoplasmic sheaths, castle are regularly referred to together cells in some textbooks. The tube nucleus controls the expansion of the pollen tube together grows under the style and into the ovary the a flower. Eventually it penetrates the micropyle of an ovule and also releases its 2 sperm into the 8-nucleate embryo sac. During dual fertilization, one sperm fuses with the egg cell nucleus to type a zygote. The various other sperm fuses with the two polar nuclei within the endosperm mommy cell to form the endosperm. In corn, this process must occur for every grain that forms. Even much more astonishing is the expansion of separate pollen tubes down each strand the silk (styles).A diploid megaspore mom cell within each ovule additionally undergoes meiosis (megasporogenesis) and also forms four haploid megaspores, 3 of i m sorry abort leave one practical megaspore. The sensible megaspore (inside each ovule) experience nuclear department into a 7-celled, 8-nucleate embryo sac. In ~ one finish of the embryo sac are three antipodal cells. At the opposite end is one egg cabinet flanked by 2 synergid cells. A large binucleate cell in the center containing two polar nuclei is dubbed the endosperm mom cell. During pollination, pollen seed land on the stigma whereby they form pollen tube that pass through the style and also eventually the ovary that the flower. A different sperm-bearing pollen tube should reach each ovule in order come fertilize the egg cell inside the embryo sac. During twin fertilization two sperm room introduced into the embryo sac from the lengthy pollen tube. One sperm cell core fuses through the egg nucleus within the egg cell to type a diploid (2n) zygote which develops into the embryo of the seed. The various other sperm cell core fuses through the 2 polar nuclei within the endosperm mother cell to kind the tripolid (3n) endosperm the the seed.
Microscopic check out of the embryo sac (megagametophyte) of a lily (Lilium). Three haploid antipodal cells (1) take place at the upper finish of the emryo sac. A huge endosperm mother cell containing two haploid polar nuclei (2) rectal the main portion the the embryo sac. In ~ the lower end (nearest the micropyle and also funiculus) are two haploid synergid cell (3) and one haploid egg. The embryo sac contains a complete of 7 cells and eight nuclei. Along with the pollen grain + pollen tube, this is the whole gametophyte generation of a flowering plant life cycle. The sporophyte generation includes the stems, leaves, roots, flowers, fruits and seeds.After fertilization, the ovule enlarges and also develops right into a mature seed containing a diploid zygote and also triploid endosperm. The particle coat is chromosomally similar to the female parental (ovary tissue) because it was acquired from two outer layers that the ovule called the integument (the integument the gymnosperm ovules consists of a solitary layer). On a mature seeds the opened or spicy in the seeds coat is where the pollen tube once gone into a space in the integument layers called the micropyle. Together the ovules develop into seeds, the outer ovary encasing the ovules enlarges and also ripens right into a fruit. Fruit that develop without double fertilization and without seeds are termed parthenocarpic. Instances of parthenocarpic fruits are navel oranges, bananas, seedless watermelons, and details varieties that figs. Not all seedless fruits space parthenocarpic. In Thompson seedless grapes, fertilization does occur, yet the ovules failure to build within the fruit. Parthenocarpy can be induced artificially through the application of dilute development hormone sprays (such together auxins) come the flowers, as in seedless tomatoes. Seedless watermelons come native triploid (sterile) plants; however, to set fruit they need to be pollinated by a fertile diploid plant. Part embryos of seeds can build apomictically without fertilization. A variety of angiosperm families contain apomictic species, consisting of figs, blackberries, hawthorns and dandelions. The embryo may develop from a diploid nutritive cabinet (nucellus tissue) neighboring the embryo sac or from the blend of hapolid cell within the embryo sac. In basic there are two main varieties of apomixis:<1> Parthenogenesis (agamogenesis): A haploidor diploid egg within the embryo sac (or diploid cabinet from 2 fusedhaploid cell of embryo sac) establishes into one embryo. <2> Agamospermy: one embryo arises from tissue neighboring the embryo sac. If this involves cells that the nucellus or inner integument layer that is referred to as a nucellar embryo. Nucellar embryos space chromosomally the same to the sporophyte parent. Castle are essentially clones that the mrs parent. In varieties of the edible fig (Ficus carica), apomictic seeds permit propagation of an option edible fig cultivars (female trees) without the infection of viruses with cuttings. Apomixis also permits a pioneer seedling come colonize and become naturalized in a new habitat by reseeding chin without cross pollination.Genetics that Triploid WatermelonSee Sex decision In FigsQuestions 27-34: If the diploid pollen parent is aabbcc, then the haploid sperm would certainly be . If the diploid seed parental is AABBCC, climate the haploid egg would be . In twin fertilization, one sperm unites with one egg to kind a diploid zygote. An additional haploid sperm unites through two haploid polar nuclei + to form a triploid endosperm in ~ the seed. Because the seed coat originates from the outer wall of the ovule (called the integument), i beg your pardon was part of the original maternal particle parent, it is chromosomally similar with the original diploid seed parent. The mature pollen grain includes a pipe nucleus and also generative nucleus, the latter of i m sorry divides into two sperm nuclei within the pollen tube. Every one of these pollen nuclei space chromosomally similar with each other and with the sperm nuclei. The adhering to diagram summarizes double fertilization in this question:
Sperm #1 (abc) fuses with a haploid egg (ABC) bring about a diploid zygote (AaBbCc) the grows into a diploid embryo (AaBbCc) in ~ the seed. Sperm #2 (abc) fuses v the two haploid polar nuclei (ABC and ABC) in ~ the endosperm mom cell leading to a triploid endosperm cell (AAaBBbCCc) that develops into the nutritive endosperm tissue (AAaBBbCCc) bordering the embryo. The complying with remarkable Wayne"s Word picture shows a minute diploid coconut embryo installed in the triploid, meaty endosperm within the particle of a coconut palm.
Close-up view with the within of a coconut seed reflecting a small, cylindrical embryo (A) installed in the fleshy meat or endosperm (B). The base of the embryo (pointing right into the coconut) swells right into an absorbing organ (cotyledon) that fills the entire cavity that the seed as it digests the endosperm. The wall of the endocarp (C) is a hard, woody great that renders up the inner component of the fruit wall. The thick, fibrous rice peel (mesocarp) the surrounds the endocarp has been removed.
Sprouting fruit that a coconut Cocos nucifera. The difficult inner class (endocarp) contains the really seed created of a minute embryo and food storage tissue (endosperm). The base of the embryo (cotyledon) swells into an soaking up organ the fills the entire cavity of the seed as it digests the endosperm. The endocarp has three germination pores, one useful pore and also two plugged pores. The three pores stand for three carpels, common of the palm family (Arecaceae). Just inside the practical germination spicy is a minute embryo installed in the endosperm tissue. During germination, a spongy fixed develps from the basic of the embryo and fills the seed cavity. This mass of organization is referred to as the "coconut apple" and also is basically the sensible cotyledon that the seed. it dissolves and also absorbs the nutrient-rich endosperm tissue to it is provided the developing shoot through sugars and minerals. Eventualy, the developing palm becomes me sufficient, together its leaves develop sugars through photosynthesis and also its roots absorb mineral from the soil. The coconut "apple" is well-off in sugars and is a sweet delicacy in tropical countries. The endosperm is the coconut "meat" i m sorry is dried and sold as "copra." The coconut "water" is multinucleate liquid endosperm inside environment-friendly coconuts that has actually not occurred into heavy tissue created of cells. Before the liquid endosperm creates a hard "meat" that is jellylike and may be eaten with a spoon. This phase of the endosperm breakthrough is referred to as "spoon meat." The "coconut milk" offered in many oriental recipes is do by soaking grated coconut meat in water and squeezing the end the oil-rich liquid. "Coir" fibers are derived from the fibrous mesocarp. The saturated fat referred to as "coconut oil" is derived from the meaty endosperm.
A note For biological 100 Students: In exalbuminous seeds, such together lima beans and walnuts, the endosperm has actually been completely absorbed through the embryo. The embryo of these seeds is composed of two significant halves called cotyledons. Attached between the cotyledons is a minute, primordial, leaf-bearing shoot called the plumule and an elongate primordial root called the radicle. See complying with photo:
The embryo that a lima p seed reflecting the embryonic shooting or plumule (A), the embryonic root or radicle (B) and two cotyledons (C). The 2 fleshy halves referred to as cotyledons space actually part of the embryo. The seeds coat (D) has actually been partially removed from the cotyledons. Because the seeds coat originates from the outer wall surface of the ovule (called the integument), i beg your pardon was part of the initial maternal seeds parent, that is chromosomally the same with the initial diploid particle parent.
See The framework Of A Coconut FruitRead about Ocean Dispersal that CoconutsRead about Coconuts and also The Coconut CrabSee The double Coconut: people Largest Seed
Chromosome numbers In Polyploid PlantsI favor the state "gametophyte" and "sporophyte" once dicussing polyploid chromosome numbers. Gametophyte describes the chromosone variety of gametes and also sporophyte describes the chromosome number of cells in adult plants. In humans, haploid (n) refers to the chromosome variety of gametes, if diploid (2n) refers to the chromosome number after fertilization; however, in polyploid plants the chromosome numbers are really different. For example, I have actually studied a rarely hybrid Brodiaea in mountain Marcos with a sporophyte chromosome number of 36. This is a hexaploid hybrid because the haploid number in Brodiaea varieties is 6 (6n = 36). The hybrid was derived from a cross in between B. Terrestris ssp. Kernensis through an octoploid (8n) sporophyte variety of 48, and B. Filifolia with a tetraploid (4n) sporophyte number of 24. The gametes of these 2 parents room tetraploid (4n) and also diploid (2n), causing a hexaploid (6n) hybrid: 4n + 2n = 6n. In this case, introduce to the gametes together haploid (n) and also the hybrid offspring as diploid (2n), together we carry out in humans, would be incorrect.Chromosome numbers Of The Rare mountain Marcos Hybrid Beodiaea
Questions 35-40: A maturation angiosperm pollen grain contains a pipe nucleus and also a generative nucleus, the latter of i beg your pardon divides into 2 sperm in ~ the pollen tube. Because that this question, a hypothetical sperm-bearing angiosperm pollen tube has a complete of 12 chromosomes. Due to the fact that the pollen tube consists of 3 nuclei (a tube nucleus and also 2 sperm nuclei), you must divide the 12 chromosomes by 3 in order to calculation the number of chromosomes every nucleus. Each nucleus in ~ the pollen tube includes one haploid collection of chromosomes. The egg additionally contains a haploid collection of chromosomes, while the zygote is diploid (with 2 sets of chromosomes) and the endosperm is triploid (with 3 sets of chromosomes).Questions 41-47: This seven-celled embryo sac includes eight haploid nuclei, each with one collection of chromosomes. The 7 cells incorporate three antipodal cells, one endosperm mommy cell, two synergid cells and also one egg. Every one of these seven cells save on computer a single nucleus except for the endosperm mom cell which consists of two polar nuclei. The haploid variety of chromosomes per nucleus have the right to be found by dividing the total variety of 32 chromosomes in this embryo sac through 8.Questions 48-51: The chromosomal answers to these questions deserve to be uncovered in the Wayne"s word article about vegetables that the mustard family. The diploid chromosome number (two sets of chromosomes) for a radish is 18 and also the diploid chromosome number for cabbage is additionally 18. The haploid number (one collection of chromosomes) because that these varieties is nine. Therfore, the gametes that the radish and also cabbage contain ripe chromosomes. Because the radish and cabbage belong to different genera, the offspring result from this cross is called a bigeneric hybrid. The diploid (2n) hybrid is sterile due to the fact that the chromosomes that the parents room not important homologous; therefore, the hybrid does not have viable gametes and cannot create viable seeds. The tetraploid (4n = 36) rabbage is fertile and also can produce viable seeds. The two sets of nine homologous radish chromosomes have the right to pair up v each other, and also the 2 sets of nine homologous cabbage chromosomes can likewise pair up with each other.Questions 63-74: answers to these questions deserve to be found in the adhering to articles, an especially the articles around the usual fig (Ficus carica) the is get an impression commercially in the mountain Joaquin valley of California.
A hereditary Cross in between WatermelonsQuestions 75-80: Questions around a cross in between two theoretical watermelons.In watermelons the gene for environment-friendly rind (G) is dominant over the gene for striped rind (g), and the gene for short fruit (S) is leading over the gene for long fruit (s). The alleles for rind color and fruit length take place on two different pairs the homologous chromosomes. Because that this question, assume that a gene for big melons (L) and and gene for numerous seeds (F) occur at opposite end of an additional chromosome (linkage). The alleles because that size and seed number, i.e. The genes for tiny melons (l) and couple of seeds (f), take place on a third homologous chromosome. A watermelon tree bearing large, green, short fruits containing countless seeds to be crossed v a tree bearing large, striped, long fruits containing countless seeds. Some of the offspring indigenous this cross created small, striped, long fruits with couple of seeds.Assuming no cross over in between homologous chromosomes, what is the fractional chance of developing the following offspring? Remember that there are three bag of homologous chromosomes in this problem, and one that the homologous bag exhibits autosomal linkage. The chromosomes that each parent are presented in the complying with illustration:
There room several methods to settle this problem, but one method is to construct a 16 square checkerboard v eight rows and two columns. Come the left of each row, placed the eight gametes the the parental tree bearing large, green, quick fruits containing countless seeds. In ~ the height of every column, placed the two gametes the the parental tree bearing large, striped, lengthy fruits containing many seeds. The most difficult part the this trouble is to number out the exact gene combine of the gametes. When this is known, you have the right to simply to fill in the squares that the checkerboard through the exactly gene combinations (genotypes) for each offspring. Remember the each genotype have to contain eight letters: an LF or lf, plus 2 G"s (GG, Gg or gg) and two S"s (SS, Ss or ss). For example, among the 16 squares contains the genotype LLFFGgSs; among the 16 squares has the genotype LLFFGgss; two of the 16 squares consists of the genotype LlFfGgss; and also one of the 16 squares consists of the genotype llffGgSs. Over there a total of 12 different genotypes in the checkerboard.GametesLFgslfgsLFGSLLFFGgSsLlFfGgSsLFGsLLFFGgssLlFfGgssLFgSLLFFggSsLlFfggSsLFgsLLFFggssLlFfggsslfGSLlFfGgSsllffGgSslfGsLlFfGgssllffGgsslfgSLlFfggSsllffggSslfgsLlFfggssllffggssCheckerboard mirroring Cross between WatermelonsThe gene combinations of the gametes are displayed in the over Table 1. The plant bearing large, striped, lengthy fruits containing plenty of seeds can create only two various kinds that gametes (shown in red in Table 1) . The gametes need to contain among the LF or lf chromosomes, one of the g chromosomes, and one of the s chromosomes. Therefore, the two possible gametes are: LFgs and lfgs. The LF and also lf genes always appear together due to the fact that they happen on the exact same chromosomes. Without crossing over, you might never have Lf together or lF together.The plant bearing large, green, brief fruits containing numerous seeds can create eight various kinds the gametes (shown in green in Table 1). The gametes should contain one of the LF or lf chromosomes, one of the G or g chromosomes, and also one the the S or s chromosomes. Due to the fact that there are two possibilities for each the the 3 kinds that chromosomes, there space eight different feasible gametes (2 x 2 x 2 = 8). 4 of the eight gametes will contain LF plus GS, Gs, gS or gs. Four of the eight gametes will certainly contain lf plus GS, Gs, gS or gs.When every the 16 squares the the checkerboard space filled in, simply find the genotypes in the squares the are explained in inquiries 77-80. The correct answers room expressed together a fractional ratio, such as 1/16. Remember that L = large fruit and also l = small fruit; F = numerous seeds and f = few seeds; G = environment-friendly rind and also g = strip rind; S = short fruit and also s = lengthy fruit. The resources letters represent dominant genes (alleles) while the little case letters represent recessive genes (alleles). Therefore, a plant with a genotype that LlFfGgss would produce huge (L), environment-friendly (G), long (s), fruits containing plenty of (F) seeds. A genotype of LlFfggSs would certainly produce large (L), striped (g), quick (S) fruits containing many (F) seedsPart V, component VI, part VII, component VIII and component XI contain matching questions 81 - 216. Many of the answers to this questions can be discovered in the reading List for exam #3, the Wayne"s indigenous Index, and Economic tree Families. Answers to many of the fruit kind questions space in the Fruit to know Outline. Beneficial hyperlinks for questions about plant genetics, figs, watermelons, etc. Are discovered in the above sections for concerns 1 - 80.
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