There space two chiral centers and also therefore, 22=4 stereoisomers are possible. These room the two pairs of enantiomers that threose and also erythrose.

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Notice that, D-erythrose and D-threose, for example, are diastereomers due to the fact that only one that the stereogenic centers has actually a various (or the same in this case) configuration. You deserve to read about the D and also L notation for carbohydrates and also amino acids here.

In general, two diastereomers that different in the construction of one chiral facility only space called epimers. And once this concerns cyclic hemiacetals choose furanose and pyranose, us classify castle as anomers.

The threo and erythro notation is a general method for specify name compounds v two stereogenic centers and also is not limited to carbohydrate only. In short, erythro is as soon as the two typical substitutes ~ above the stereogenic centers are on the same side, and also when they are on opposite sides, the is the threo.


 Five Carbon Aldehydes – Aldopentoses

Aldopentoses have actually three stereogenic centers, and also therefore there room eight (23) feasible stereoisomers (four bag of enantiomers). Four of the feasible aldopentoses room D sugars, if the other four have an together configuration:




Among these, D-Ribose is the most common and also perhaps crucial as the is the sugar building block of the DNA backbone in the deoxy kind (Deoxyribonucleic acid).


Six Carbon Aldehydes – Aldohexoses

Aldohexoses have 4 stereogenic centers which way there space eight (24 = 16) feasible stereoisomers This coincides to eight bag of enantiomers – eight D aldohexoses, and eight l aldohexoses:




Among aldopentoses, glucose is the many common and also important due to the fact that it is the structure unit the starch, cellulose, and sucrose i m sorry is the table sugar.

As discussed in the picture, D and L isomers space enantiomers and also any various other pair represents diastereomers.

For example, D-Glucose and also D-mannose space diastereomers because the configuration of just one stereogenic facility is changed.




Diastereomers that differ in the construction of just one chiral center are called epimers and also we will talk about them in separate short article to address an ext details.

All the aldoses can also be more classified into a family tree. This done for the D isomers due to the fact that these room the naturally developing sugars. We start through d-glyceraldehyde and also keep adding a brand-new chiral facility just listed below the carbonyl group. for example, adding a brand-new chiral facility to glyceraldehyde generates two additional stereoisomers – D-Erythrose and D-Threose (check the relationship of D-Erythrose and D-Threose with the threo and erythro notation) which are aldotetroses. These, in turn, generate four possible aldopentoses and also then aldohexoses:





Two main differences between aldoses and also ketoses:

1) ketoses save a ketone quite than an aldehyde C=O,

2) because the C=O is ~ above carbon number two, ketoses have one less chiral facility than the corresponding aldehydes.

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The family tree starts indigenous the easiest ketose, dihydroxyacetone, and also is built by adding a new stereogenic carbon between C2 and C3. D-fructose is the most common naturally developing ketose discovered in numerous plants, wherein it is often bonded to glucose thus developing sucrose.