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* Corresponding authors
a Unidad Académica Puerto Morelos, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Puerto Morelos, Mexico
b University of New Hampshire, Department of Molecular, Cellular and Bioclinical Sciences, Durham, NH, U.S.A. E-mail: mpl
Organisms living in shallow-water tropical cdental reef settings are exposed to high UVR irradiances because of the low solar zenith angles (the angle of the sun from the vertical), the organic thinness of the ozone layer over tropical latitudes, and the high transparency of the water column. The hypothesis that solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 290–400 nm) is a crucial element that affects the biology and ecology of coral reef organisms days only to around 1980. It has actually been formerly argued that raised levels of biologically reliable ultraviolet B radiation (UVB, 290–320 nm), which is the waveband mainly impacted by ozone depletion, would certainly have actually fairly little effects on corals and cdental reefs and that these effects can be observed as alters in the minimum depths of incident of vital reef taxa such as corals. This conclusion was based upon predictions of rises in UVR as well as its attenuation through depth making use of the available data on UVR irradiances, ozone levels, and optical properties of the water overlying coral reefs. Here, we review the speculative proof demonstrating the straight and also indirect results of UVR, both UVB and also ultraviolet A (UVA, 320–400 nm) on corals and also other reef linked biota, through emphasis on those research studies performed considering that 1996. In addition, we re-research the predictions made in 1996 for the rise in UVB on reefs through presently obtainable data, assess whether those predictions were reasonable, and also look at what alters might happen on coral reefs later as the multiple results (i.e. enhanced temperature, hypercapnia, and also sea acidification) of international climate change proceed.