Submitted: April 17th 2016Reviewed: respectable 16th 2016Published: November 30th 2016

DOI: 10.5772/65263


Polysaccharide‐based composite materials have been the current research focus in the ar of product science and also engineering due to the fact that of their biocompatibility, renewability, and sustainability. In this chapter, the authors effort to review and discuss recent works in developing polysaccharide‐based composites in applications of tissue engineering, medicine delivery, and also biopolymer‐based movie packaging. This chapter focuses on carrageenan, alginate, chitosan, starch, and also cellulose composites. Introduction on these types of polysaccharides offered as biomaterials is briefly discussed.

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Authors

Izzati Fatimah WahabIJN‐UTM Cardiovascular design Centre, university of Technology, Malaysia, Johor, MalaysiaFaculty that Biosciences and Medical Engineering, college of Technology, Malaysia, Johor, MalaysiaSaiful Izwan Abd Razak*IJN‐UTM Cardiovascular design Centre, college of Technology, Malaysia, Johor, MalaysiaFaculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, college of Technology, Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia

*Address every correspondence to: saifulizwan

1. Introduction

Biomaterials are characterized as products that are provided in therapeutic or diagnostic procedure by interactions with components of living solution <1>. Over the years, synthetic polymers, ceramics, and also metals were preferred for these varieties of applications because of their reproducibility and better performance. However, the growing concern on environment and also health side‐effects have supported researches to look for naturally derived polymers. Biomaterials are designed to it is in inert and not to interact in biological systems and also not come cause any type of harmful transforms to the body. Polysaccharides are herbal polymers found in plant and organism. The abundance of polysaccharide as a renewable resource promised its sustainability and also economic value for biomaterials. Your production price is much less than any synthetic polymers and also is conveniently processable.

Polysaccharides room polymeric carbohydrate molecules consisting of long chains that monosaccharide units bound through glycosidic linkages. The truth that this polymers are extracted from natural resources has actually led to the impression of great biocompatibility and biodegradability. Chemically, nearly all products from plants space carbohydrate in nature and also composed of repeating unit of monosaccharides. Thus, they space nontoxic. Its biocompatible nature is additionally attributed come the structure similarity of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), i beg your pardon is a crucial component the extracellular procession in tissue. Over there is an emerging interest in reduce the amount of undisposable plastic rubbish that frequently leads come serious eco-friendly problem. Polysaccharides room potential different for replacing conventional petroleum‐based plastics which are able come biodegrade naturally in soil. Polysaccharides are well known for their supplied in the food and also dairy industries. However, its distinctive structure and versatile modification can be explored because that other necessary fields.

Polysaccharide can be categorized into structural and storage polysaccharides. Instances of structural polysaccharides are cellulose in plant and chitin in the shells the crustacean, while warehouse polysaccharides include starch and also glycogen. Polysaccharides are existing in many living organisms. In fact, polysaccharides comprise about 70% the the dry weight of the total biomass <2>. Although polysaccharide is helpful as biomaterials as they are much more ecofriendly than petro‐polymers, there space still critical drawbacks that need special attention to do it an ideal choice. Polysaccharide exhibits poorer mechanically properties than the typical plastics. Some polysaccharides additionally have solid hydrophilic behavior that may reason early rupture. Thus, polysaccharide composites have actually been broadly studied in to the to respond to this problem and obtain additional properties for particular application.


2. Varieties of polysaccharide

Several types of polysaccharide were extensively studied end the past years due to their potential in countless research areas. Some of the polysaccharides being explored as biomaterials space carrageenan, alginate, chitosan, starch, and also cellulose.


2.1. Carrageenan

Carrageenan is a sulfated polysaccharide extract from red algae. Maritime organisms native Rhodophycaeafamily choose Hypnea, Euchema, Chondrus, Crispus, and also Gigartinaare the main type of red seaweeds manufactured for carrageenan sources. Different species of red seaweed is provided to extract various carrageenan, namely, kappa (κ), iota (ı), lambda (λ), nu (η), mu (μ), ksi (ξ), and also theta (φ). The structures of the three many prevalent and also commercialized carrageenans are displayed in Figure1. Examples of some different sources of carragenans room Euchomadenticulatum(spinosum) for ı‐carrageenan, Kappaphycusalvarezi(cottoni) because that κ‐carrageenan, and also Gigartinaradulaand Chonduscrispusfor exploit of both ı‐ and also κ‐carrageenans <3>. All varieties of carrageenans are water‐soluble.

Carrageenans contain alternate units of D‐galactose and also 3, 6‐anhydro‐galactose connected glycosidically. As have the right to be checked out in Figure1, κ‐carrageenan has actually only one sulfate team per disaccharide chain, two for ı‐carrageenan, vice versa, λ‐carrageenan obtained three. This caused anionic polysaccharide the is frequently neutralized through cations prefer sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and also ammonium. Exciting to note that the structure of λ‐carrageenan does not have actually 3,6‐anhydro‐bridge choose in the κ‐ and also ı‐carrageenans. This structure offers κ‐ and also ır‐carrageenans gelling ability in response to thermal condition. The ar of ester sulfate group affects the solubility and gel stamin of carrageenan, while existence of 3,6‐anhydro‐bridge results in polysaccharide gelation <5>. As well as galactose and sulfate units, other carbohydrate residual water that generally exist in carrageenan space xylose, glucose, and also uronic mountain <6>. Carrageenans are used in a selection of advertising applications together gelling, thickening, and also stabilizing agents, specifically in food products and also sauces. Beside from this functions, carrageenans room being explored in experimental medicine, pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetics, and industrial applications.


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2.2. Alginate

Alginate, or additionally called alginic acid, deserve to be obtained from both algal and also bacterial sources. Current commercial alginates are greatly from the cell wall surfaces of brown birds (Phaeophyceae) <7> such as Laminaria hyperborea, Laminaria lessonia, Macrocystis pyrifera, and also Ascophyllum nodosum. They room harvested to it is in converted right into raw material typically known as sodium alginate. Top top the other hand, alginates that are synthesized by bacter biosynthesis obtain more defined chemical structures and physical properties 보다 that that seaweed‐derived alginates <8>. These bacterial alginates can be produced from Azotobacterand Pseudomonas. Other usual forms the alginates space potassium alginate and calcium alginate. Alginates room anionic polysaccharides that can type viscous gum when bound v water. They room composed of linear unbranched copolymers containing blocks of (1,4)‐linked β‐D‐mannuronic mountain (M) and α‐L‐guluronate (G) residues, covalently connected in different sequences or blocks. The blocks have the right to be continually MMMMM or GGGGG, or alternate GMGMGM. The amount of G and also M blocks and also the length depends on the alginate origin. The gel development of alginate occurs as soon as two G block of nearby chains chelate with cations favor Ca2+ through their carboxylic teams <9>.

Alginate is also another renowned material offered in foods as a thickening agent, gelling agent, emulsifier, stabilizer, and also texture improver. It have the right to be included to shade paste because that textile printing and also act as binder that flux in welding rod production. Alginates are additionally established as biomaterials in the pharmaceutical industry where they have the right to be compounded into tablets come accelerate disintegration of tablet computer for much faster release of drugs. In cosmetic field, alginate can help to retain the shade of lipstick on lip surface ar by forming gel network.


2.3. Chitosan

Chitosan is a natural aminopolysaccharide created from partial alkaline deacetylation that chitin. Chitin, the 2nd largest herbal polymer after ~ cellulose, is the structural aspect found in the exoskeleton the crustaceans, insects, and also fungi. Similar to plants develop cellulose in their cell walls, insects and also crustaceans produce chitin in their shells. Chitosan is composed of straight copolymer the β (1–4) connected 2‐acetamido‐2‐deoxy‐β‐D‐glucopyranose and 2‐amino‐2‐deoxy‐ β‐D‐glycopyranose. Different factors, such as alkali concentration, incubation time, ratio chitin come alkali, temperature, atmosphere, resource of chitin, and particle size, pat a role in affect the nature of chitosan <10>. Chitin possesses bad solubility in aqueous solution and also organic solvents mainly due to the fact that of the highly prolonged hydrogen external inspection semicrystalline structure of chitin, thus limiting its useful application in biomaterials <11>. Chitin has actually the level of acetylation (DA) that 0.90 <12>. Conversely, chitosan possess major amino teams with pKa value of 6.3. This amines gain protonated and form water‐soluble and also bioadhesive chitosan which conveniently bind come negatively fee surfaces <13>.

Unlike chitin, chitosan has actually highly sophisticated functionality and also wide range of applications in biomedical and other industrial areas. The advantage of chitosan over other polysaccharides is since of its cationic character and primary amino group <14>. Although castle exhibit comparable structure, chitosan display different properties from the of cellulose. Once the level of deacetylation the chitin reaches around 50%, it becomes chitosan and soluble in aqueous acidic media <15>. Chitosan has been applied in agriculture, water and also waste management, food and beverages, cosmetics and toiletries, and also biopharmaceutics.


2.4. Starch

Starch comprises that two main components: (1) amylose (Figure2a), a nonbranching helical polymer consist of of α‐1, 4 attached D‐glucose monomers and (2) amylopectin (Figure2b), a highly branched polymer consists of both α‐1,4 and also α‐1,6 attached D‐glucose monomers. Every starches room biosynthesized together semicrystalline granules with tiny amount that water <16>. There room amorphous and also crystalline expansion rings arranged alternately encircling hilum i beg your pardon is the allude of initiation that the granule. Starch gelatinization is done by heating indigenous starch in water <17>. ~ heating, starch granules begin to swell and also burst. The semicrystalline framework is disrupted and smaller amylose molecules begin to leach the end of the granules. Gelatinization irreversibly dissolves strength granule in water where water acts together a plasticizer. It develops network that holds water and increase the equipment viscosity.

Starch is a resourceful natural polymer where it can be found in numerous plant roots, crop seeds, stalks, and staple crops. Main sources of native starch are maize (82%), wheat (8%), cassava (5%), and potatoes (5%) <18>. Strength is created by all eco-friendly plants as source of save energy. They were supplied in countless applications in the form of native and also modified starches. Starches are renowned in food making consisting of bakery, dairy products, confectionery, and also processed foods. Other nonfood markets using starches are papermaking, adhesives, clothing, and also cosmetics. Starch also involves in manufacturing of antibiotics, vitamins, penicillin, and also dialysis solutions.


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2.5. Cellulose

Cellulose is a direct chain the ringed glucose molecules and also has a flat ribbon‐like conformation. It has actually the formula (C6H10O5)nwhere ndepended on the resource of cellulose linked by β(1→4) glycosidic bonds. Cellulose is an important structural component of cell wall surfaces in greater plants and also is the most abundant essential polymer on the Earth. It is relatively stiff and rigid since of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding that deserve to be reflected from its tendency to crystallize, high viscosity, and ability to form fibrillary strands <19>. Cellulose is insoluble in water and also indigestible by the human body <20>. The glucose devices in cellulose are linked by β glycosidic bonds, various than the α glycosidic bonds discovered in glycogen and starch. Cellulose has more hydrogen binding between nearby glucose units, both within a chain and between adjacent chains, making that a tougher fiber than glycogen or starch. This is why wood is for this reason tough. Wood, paper, and cotton space the most typical forms the cellulose. The purest natural kind of cellulose is cotton. Other than these, cellulose can also be developed by certain types of bacteria and also they are called bacterial cellulose. When cellulose is a simple structural ingredient in most plants, that is additionally produced in Acetobacter, Sarcina ventriculi, and Agrobecterium. Bacter cellulose contains higher purity and also water uptake capability compared to plant cellulose <21>. It has a tensile stamin that is almost comparable to the Kevlar and steel and it can achieve stress‐strain habits resembling the of a soft organization in never ever dried type <22>.

Being the largest organic polymer accessible is the most helpful character for material sustainability and renewability. Cellulose has actually been tremendously applied in the production of cardboard and paper <19>. Current advancement of cellulose reflects its potential in biomedical and biotechnological implementation. The is supplied in bioseparation, adsorbent for sewer treatment, cabinet suspension culture, and wound heal system.


3. Applications of polysaccharide composite biomaterials

Fabrications the polysaccharide‐based composites containing different kind of reinforcements were subjected to many applications.


3.1. Tissue engineering

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have actually been essential research areas that target to repair and replace breakdown tissues or organs <23>. Assistive material or device is produced in bespeak to support tissue generation which then can proceed growing and functioning like original tissue in the body. Ideal three‐dimensional (3D) organization scaffolds should have specific characters come promote new tissue formation. Polymer‐based material for 3D tissue scaffolds demands to own high porosity, high surface ar area, perfect biodegradability, and great structural integrity. Human bodies are comprised of complicated and sensitive biological systems. Therefore, thorough attention demands to it is in taken in developing materials for tissue regeneration. Polysaccharide‐based materials have since been the interest because of their crucial properties because that biomedical application such together biocompatibility, biodegradability, and also low price <24>. They have acceptable response to the host and have capability to promote cell proliferation and also adhesion. The emerging technology has investigated and also explored many potential brand-new forms the biomaterials for this purpose.

Halloysite nanotubes have actually been the interest because decades as biomaterials and fillers in composite scaffolds. A research by Liu et al. Offered this clay in alginate procession to construct porous organization engineered scaffolds <25>. They have actually successfully produced scaffold through 96% porosity. The composite scaffolds showed enhanced mechanical properties of alginate where greater compressive strength and also modulus than pure alginate scaffold were acquired in dry and also wet states. Halloysite nanotubes assisted in cell attachment and also improved the stability versus enzymatic degradation. An additional attempt reported the chitosan/alginate/halloysite nanotube experience amine treatment which later showed better cell growth and also adherence than nonaminated composite frame <26>. Biomimetic synthetic scaffold to be fabricated through inclusion of amorphous silica into alginate hydrogel <27>. They embedded bone cells, osteoblast‐related SaOS‐2 cells, and also osteoclast‐like raw 264.7 cell into the hydrogel beads. The bead encapsulation that bone cell is a useful method to produce bioactive programmable hydrogels. That is observed that it does no impair the viability that the encapsulated cells. Furthermore, organization of nanoceramic may enhance the capacity of polymeric frame for tissue regeneration. A study found that as‐fabricated alginate/nano‐TiO2 needles nanocomposites through lyophilization technique contain well managed swelling and degradation contrasted to practiced alginate frame <28>.

A distinct honeycomb composite that mollusca shell matrix and also calcium alginate to be fabricated to carry cells because that soft tissue, skin, bone, and cartilage tissue regenerative therapies <29>. The composite was produced by frozen and also treated mixture the Anodonta woodianashell powder and sodium alginate v hydrochloric acid. It to be transplanted right into rats for 7, 14, 42, and 70 days. The composite shown honeycomb structure under laser confocal microscope. This composite has far-ranging mechanical properties, good biological safety and security over 70‐day period, and also lower deterioration rate compared to the calcium carbonate (control). The regeneration of soft tissue requires substitutes that exhibit mechanically properties similar to indigenous tissue. Thin saloplastic membrane from chitosan/alginate polyelectrolyte complexes containing different concentration of sodium chloride were prepared <30>. The membranes room resistant to destruction by lysozyme and also stale at different pH. V high salt concentration, the water uptake and tensile moduli to be increased, but decreasing the can be fried strength. High proliferation rates and also viability that L929 fibroblasts to be demonstrated. Structural change to bacterial cellulose/alginate scaffold was built by two procedures, very first is developing composite sponge bacterial cellulose/alginate (BCA) by crosslinking and freeze drying, and second is by reversing the previous procedure <31>. This procedures led to open and interconnected porous structure and thus lift increase the trouble of limited in vivoapplication due to thick outer layer of scaffolds.


3.1.1. Bone tissue engineering

Scaffolds fabrication in bone tissue engineering becomes preferable different to autografts and also allografts which need surgical transplant of organization or bone even if it is from the patient"s own body or native a donor, respectively. This procedures frequently suffer from limited availability and risks of immunogenicity <32>. The performance of scaffolds for hard tissue critically counts on your mechanical and biological properties. Combine of nanomaterials inside polysaccharide matrix is always proposed to rise the material surface area for magnified cell adhesion and also proliferation.

A blend of alginate and chitosan was included with nanosized bioactive silica (SiO2) particles to provide biomineralization capacity and polymer stiffness <33>. The composite scaffolds showed boosted protein adsorption, managed swelling ability, and improved apatite deposition without significant cytotoxicity toward osteolineage cells. Nanoscale fibers have actually been said to be effective reinforcing agents because of their resemblance come the fibrous structures of bone tissue bone extracellular procession (ECM). A composite was developed by unique mix of wet electrospinning, particulate leaching, and freeze drying of starch/silk fibroin <34>. Silk fibroin has actually slow degradation rate v high oxygen permeability and also thus is an ideal for slow rebirth of tissue. Hadisi et al. Fabricated the silk fibroin nanofibers through wet spinning directly via wet electrospinning utilizing methanol coagulation bath prior to incorporating the chopped electrospun nanofibers right into the strength matrix, followed by particulate leaching and also freeze drying. The silk fibroin‐containing strength hydrogel was further coated through calcium phosphates for much better compatibility v the surrounding tissues. The viability the osteoblast‐like cells (MG63) exposed to the composites’ extracts to be significantly greater than the of the pure starch.

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is the main not natural component of herbal bone that has actually been broadly used in many biocomposites to rise osteoconductivity and also reinforce the framework of polymer‐based bone scaffolds <35, 36>. The formation of bone‐like apatite ~ above scaffolds have the right to be seen through the detection of calcium phosphates on the product surfaces. Organization of HAp nanoparticles in carrageenan <37>, alginate <38, 39>, cellulose <40, 41>, and chitosan <42> presented favorable website for bone cabinet adhesion and also tissue regeneration compared to the practiced polysaccharide scaffolds. The preparation of HAp‐containing composites can be lugged out one of two people by using typical mixing technique or by precipitating HAp crystals on the polymer matrices <36>. Mixture of 2 or much more types the polysaccharides v HA choose in Sharma et al. Were thought to generate an ext synergistic result to better mimic come the bone extracellular matrix, i beg your pardon comprises a selection of contents <43>.


3.1.2. Skin organization engineering

Skin is the biggest organ of human body. The serves as the very first protection to human being from environmental and surrounding threat. Fabrication that quaternary composite scaffold using chitosan, alginate, gelatin, and silk fibroin has actually successfully created scaffold that 88% porosity with an excellent mechanical security <44>. L929 fibroblast cabinet cultured ~ above this quaternary composite scaffold showed an excellent viability, adhesion, and proliferation, hence indicating the an excellent prospect the the scaffold because that skin tissue engineering. Boateng et al. Learned two various methods for wound dressing to test their adhesive nature <45>. Solvent actors films and freeze‐dried wafers include polyethylene oxide (polyox) and also carrageenan or salt alginate. Wafers and films developed demonstrated high detachment force indicating strong interactions in between polymers and the design wound surface. The adhesive properties to be evaluated using attenuated reflectance Fourier change infrared spectroscopy by surveillance the diffusion that mucin solution. The diffusion that mucin systems as model protein was quicker for the wafer type than the film.

Wound dressings v antimicrobial and also antiinflammatory properties are favorable besides the general noncytotoxic requirement. The gel‐forming capacity of polysaccharide products helps in dressing application and removal without much pain to the skin. Organization of particular fillers to the dressing can provide additional role to the wound dressing to accomplish patients’ needs. Encapsulation of antimicrobial and antiinflammatory drugs right into wound dressing is the most usual attempt for this purpose. The vault polyox/carrageenan composite has actually been loaded with diclorofenac and also streptomycin to improve the healing impact of wound <46>. The dressing showed higher zones that inhibition against three microbes compared to the individual drugs zones of inhibition. The insertion the diclorofenac can prevent inflammation while streptomycin deserve to prevent the wound infections. However, adding multiple drugs into wound dressing there is no disturbing the healing duty of the dressing is fairly challenging. Thus, numerous studies have been excellent to combine other materials as antimicrobial agents, together as important oil <47> and metal oxide <48>, inside wound dressing to assistance its purpose.


3.1.3. Neural tissue engineering

Central concerned system diseases are usually caused by the fatality of neurons and also progressive ns of its function. Current developments in neural modern technology have opened up up possibilities of nerve organization regeneration. 2 potential natural polymers for nerve tissue design were linked with hyaluronic acid and heparan sulfate via freeze‐drying an approach <49>. The composite scaffolds demonstrated highly homogenous and also interconnected pores with porosity over 96%. The visibility of hyaluronic acid and also heparan sulfate has supported the adhesion of early neural stem and progenitor cells. Nanofiber‐hydrogel of polycaprolactone (PCL) and also sodium alginate composite was all set by electrospinning <50>. The fibrous kind of this scaffold is to administer suitable environment for rejuvenation of the peripheral nerve injury. This kind of combination of natural and synthetic polymers has actually long been functioned on to utilize the mechanical properties of PCL while maintaining alginate hydrophilicity to support cell adhesion. The composite presented that a good suture pulled out strength and assists the human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) viability, adhesion, proliferation, and also neurogenic differentiation in neural induction media.


3.2. Drug delivery

Drug distribution area requires an art of transporting drugs or therapeutic compound to person body. It is a vital research field where the transported link must achieve the optimum therapeutic effect to protect or heal from any kind of kind the disease. The usage of polysaccharide products in drug distribution systems is boosting mainly because of their ability to form hydrogel with stimuli‐responsive nature <51, 52>. Besides being mechanically deficient, polysaccharide‐based drug carrier normally have early burst trouble in the distribution system. Therefore, controlled delivery solution were suggest by addition of assorted fillers right into polysaccharide matrix. This contains incorporation the Fe3O4 <53>, CaCO3 <54>, silica nanoparticle <55>, graphene oxide <56>, gold nanoparticle <57>, and also montmorillonite <58>.

Oral drug management is among the wanted routes because it is convenient and has no cross‐infection. However, medicine taken through oral route have to pass through various phases of cradle tract, where pH worths vary greatly. The adjust in pH may result in loss of mechanical strength and fast degradation. To defend the drugs from the harsh environment in stomach before they can be absorbed in the intestine, pH‐sensitive polysaccharide composites to be developed. Protein drugs were encapsulated in not natural carrier <59, 60> and also gel beads <61, 62> to expand their release. Collection of pH‐sensitive composite hydrogel composites of alginate and chitosan basic were ready with addition of attapulgite <61>, bone ash <63>, and other polymer‐like pectin <64> that plainly showed their release dependence come pH condition. That was found that cross‐ linking and nanofiller loading can significantly improve the targeted release <65, 66> in the pH‐sensitive polysaccharide composites.

Polysaccharides choose starch and carrageenan are thermoresponsive polymers. They can be utilized in drug distribution with thermal sensitivity. ?‐carrageenans were integrated with Au <67> and also silica <68> nanoparticles. The result of both nanoparticles on the microstructure and also strength the the hydrogel had implications in the device of managed release together demonstrated through in vitrorelease researches using a medicine model and displayed potential because that thermally regulated drug delivery. Schmitt et al. Loaded aqueous medicine containing 5‐aminosalycylic acid (5‐ASA) into halloysite nanotubes and dispersed them fine in thermoplastic starch matrix <69>. The ede of the produced nanocomposite strongly counts on the temperature yet not top top pH. Furthermore, ?‐carrageenans were additionally studied because that a triple‐response hydrogel by simultaneous development of at sight paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) and also crosslinking the of polyacrylyc acid (PAA) <70>. The swelling capacity and also drug release of ?‐carrageenan‐PAA/SPION hydrogel to be tested to various temperature, pH, and also magnetic field to evaluate the sensitivity the the hydrogel. Lock have efficiently synthesized biocompatible hydrogel with substantial temperature, pH, and also external magnetic field sensitivity using basic and practically one‐pot strategy. An additional interesting useful hydrogel that ?‐carrageenan was ready by reinforcing with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) <71>. This hydrogel composite shows enhanced release of a design drug in in vitroconditions as result of the near‐infrared (NIR) photothermal effect of MWCNTs, thus demonstrating that promising duty as carrier for remotely activated drug delivery.

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Apart from gift too concentrated on the additional role on drug carrier material, excipients must have the capability to encapsulate and protect the drugs. Some drugs have some certain needs to attain targeted release. Targeted relax is very important to ensure optimum drug effects. Aceclofenac is an orally administered phenyl acetic acid derivative with impacts on a variety of inflammatory mediators. The frequent administration and extend treatment was connected with assorted side effects. The usage of Boswelliagum resin right into chitosan polymer to deliver nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug has actually caused far-ranging improvement in medicine entrapment performance (~40%) that the polymer composites <72>. Extremely hydrophobic drug prefer curcumin generally has bad solubility in polysaccharide excipients. An effort to include pluronic F127 right into alginate/chitosan matrix discovered to have increased the encapsulation performance of curcumin inside the composite, indicating much better dispersion of curcumin inside procession <73>. Local avascular distribution to law orthopedic infections resulted in by Methicillin‐resistant Staphylococus aureus(MRSA) was developed by fabrication of porous chitosan/bioceramic β‐tricalcium phosphate (CS/β‐TCP) <74>. The composite to be then coated through poly(?‐caprolactone) (PCL) to retard the relax of vancomycin because that 6 mainly at level to inhibit MRSA proliferation. Recently, the potential application of deferoxamine (DFO) in number of iron dysregulation conditions has to be highlighted. However, DFO presents far-ranging limitations in clinical use because of its negative absorption in the gut and very short plasma half‐life. Inclusion of poly(D,L‐lactide‐co‐glycolide) microspheres right into preformed chitosan/alginate hydrogel listed strong DFO entrapment in the hydrogel network and also slow relax <75>.