facet 14 of regular table is Silicon v atomic number 14, atomic load 28.0855. Silicon, price Si, has actually a Tetrahedral packing structure and Gray color. Silicon is a metalloid element. Trivial name of Silicon is tetrels, crystallogens. Know everything around Silicon Facts, physics Properties, chemical Properties, digital configuration, Atomic and also Crystal Structure.


Silicon is a chemical element with prize Si and also atomic number 14. That is a tetravalent metalloid, much more reactive 보다 germanium, the metalloid directly below it in the table. Controversy about silicon"s character dates to that discovery.

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Silicon Facts

Read key information and also facts around element Silicon

surname Silicon
atom Number 14
atom Symbol Si
Atomic weight 28.0855
step Solid
color Gray
Classification metalloid
team in regular Table 14
Group Name carbon family
period in periodic Table 3
Block in routine Table p-block
Electronic Configuration 3s2 3p2
Melting allude 1414 °C
Boiling suggest 2.9×103 °C
Electronic covering Structure <2, 8, 4>
CAS Number CAS7440-21-3

How to find Silicon on routine Table

Periodic table is i ordered it by atom number, variety of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atom number rises from left come right. Routine table starts at height left ( atom number 1) and ends at bottom appropriate (atomic number 118). Because of this you can directly look for atomic number 14 to uncover Silicon on regular table.

Another way to read routine table and also locate an element is by using team number (column) and period number (row). To locate Silicon on routine table look because that cross section of team 14 and duration 3 in the contemporary periodic table.

discover Interactive regular Table come Understand and also Learn Cool trends

Table that Contents

Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Health and also Safety Parameters and also Guidelines
Compare Silicon with other elements

Silicon History

The aspect Silicon was uncovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in year 1824 in Sweden . Silicon acquired its name from the Latin silex, "flint" (originally silicium)

Silicon Presence: abundance in Nature and also Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Silicon in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and also Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
abundance in cosmos 0.0007
diversity in sun 0.0009
variety in Meteorites 0.14
Abundance in Earth"s late 0.27
diversity in seas 1e-06
variety in humans 0.00026

Crystal structure of Silicon

The solid state structure of Silicon is Tetrahedral Packing.

The decision structure can be defined in regards to its unit Cell. The unit cell repeats itself in 3 dimensional an are to form the structure.

Unit cabinet Parameters

The unit cell is stood for in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths that the cabinet edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
543.09 543.09 543.09 pm

and the angles between them Lattice angle (alpha, beta and also gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cabinet are defined by the collection of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a referral lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the decision are described by the principle of an are groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional an are are explained by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are thought about distinct.

room Group surname Fd_ 3m
room Group Number 227
Crystal structure Tetrahedral Packing

Silicon Atomic and Orbital Properties

Silicon atoms have 14 electrons and the electronic shell structure is <2, 8, 4> through Atomic hatchet Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.

atomic Number 14
Number of electrons (with no charge) 14
Number the Protons 14
Mass Number 28
Number the Neutrons 14
Shell structure (Electrons per power level) <2, 8, 4>
Electron configuration 3s2 3p2
Valence Electrons 3s2 3p2
Oxidation State -4;-3;-2;-1 1;2;3;4
Atomic ax Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0

Shell structure of Silicon - electrons per energy level


Ground State digital Configuration the Silicon - neutral Silicon atom

The soil state digital configuration that Neutral Silicon atom is 3s2 3p2. The part of Silicon configuration that is identical to the noble gas that the preceding period, is abbreviated as . For atoms with plenty of electrons, this notation have the right to become lengthy and so an abbreviation notation is used.This is vital as that is the Valence electrons 3s2 3p2, electron in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties the the element.

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Unabbreviated electronic configuration that neutral Silicon

Complete floor state digital configuration for the Silicon atom, Unabbreviated digital configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2

Atomic framework of Silicon

Silicon atom radius is 111 pm, if it"s covalent radius is 111 pm.

atomic Radius

111 pm (1.11 Å)


Silicon chemistry Properties: Silicon Ionization Energies and also electron affinity

The electron affinity the Silicon is 133.6 kJ/mol

Valence 4
Electronegativity 1.9
ElectronAffinity 133.6 kJ/mol

Ionization energy of Silicon

Refer to table listed below for Ionization energies the Silicon

Ionization power number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 786.5
2 1577.1
3 3231.6
4 4355.5
5 16091
6 19805
7 23780
8 29287
9 33878
10 38726

Silicon physics Properties

Refer to below table because that Silicon physics Properties

Silicon is Semiconductor the electricity. Refer to table listed below for the electric properties of Silicon

electric Conductivity 1×103 S/m
Resistivity 0.001 m Ω
Superconducting point N/A

Silicon Heat and Conduction Properties

thermal Conductivity 150 W/(m K)
Thermal development 2.6×10-6 K-1

Silicon Magnetic Properties

Magnetic kind Diamagnetic
Curie point N/A
fixed Magnetic Susceptibility -1.6×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -4.49×10-11
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -3.73×10-6

Optical nature of Silicon

Refractive index N/A

Acoustic nature of Silicon

speed of Sound 2.2×103 m/s

Silicon thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer come table listed below for heat properties the Silicon

Melting suggest 1687 K (1414 °C)
Boiling suggest 3173 K (2.9×103 °C)
critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting allude N/A

Enthalpies that Silicon

warm of blend 50.2 kJ/mol
warmth of Vaporization 359 kJ/mol
warm of combustion -9055 J/(kg K)

Silicon isotope - atom Properties of Silicon

Isotopes the rhodium. Naturally arising Silicon has actually 3 secure isotope - 28Si, 29Si, 30Si.

Isotope Isotope massive % abundance T half Decay mode
28Si 92.2297% steady N/A
29Si 4.6832% steady N/A
30Si 3.0872% stable N/A

Regulatory and also Health - Health and Safety Parameters and also Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-21-3
RTECS Number RTECSVW0400000
dot Hazard class 4.1
dot Numbers 1346
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA risks N/A
NFPA wellness Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition suggest 150 °C
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

list of distinctive identifiers to search the facet in miscellaneous chemical it is registered databases

Database id number
CAS Number - chemistry Abstracts service (CAS) CAS7440-21-3
CID Number CID5461123
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSVW0400000

Compare Silicon v all Group 14 elements

Silicon vs Carbon Silicon vs Germanium Silicon vs believe Silicon vs lead Silicon vs Flerovium

Compare Silicon with all metalloid elements

Silicon vs Boron Silicon vs Germanium Silicon vs Arsenic Silicon vs Antimony Silicon vs Tellurium Silicon vs Polonium