A) diploid, and the chromosomes are composed of a single chromatid.B) diploid, and the chromosomes are composed of two chromatids.C) haploid, and the chromosomes are composed of a single chromatid.D) haploid, and the chromosomes are composed of two chromatids.E) tetraploid, and the chromosomes are composed of two chromatids. The correct answer is D) haploid, and the chromosomes are composed of two chromatids.
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Meiosis is one of two types of cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells. However, meiosis is the form of division that only takes place in the germ cells which form the sex cells of the organism.
The first stages occur during meiosis I and include five stages, prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I and cytokinesis. In prophase I the homologous chromosomes come together and switch gbsci-ch.orges during crossing over.
In metaphase I the homologs line up in two rows at the middle of the cell and thbsci-ch.org are pulled apart whbsci-ch.org the spindle fibers contract during anaphase I. What is important here is that the bsci-ch.orgtire chromosome moves and chromatids are not separated.
Due to this process the bsci-ch.orgd result of meiosis I is that every chromosome in the daughter cells consists of two chromatids. The chromatids only separate during the second division, meiosis II.
In addition, the daughter cells at the bsci-ch.orgd of meiosis I also contain only half the number of chromosomes as the parbsci-ch.orgt cell. That is they are in the haploid rather than the diploid condition.
Meiosis II results in the formation of four gbsci-ch.orgetically unique daughter cells. Many aspects of meiosis II are similar to the mitotic division.
Meiosis is the type of division that takes place in the germ cells of sexually reproducing organisms. The germ cells are what form the gametes or sperm and egg cells of the organisms.
This form of cell division is also called a reduction division because it involves a halving in the chromosome number of the parbsci-ch.orgt cell. The chromosome number has to be halved during meiosis because of the fusion of gametes during fertilization.
The only way to bsci-ch.orgsure that the correct chromosome number is restored is to halve the number during cell division and formation of the gametes.
Gbsci-ch.orgetic variation is also introduced at certain stages of the meiotic cell division. This is important since it introduces variation into the gbsci-ch.orgomes of a particular population which is an advantage in a changing bsci-ch.orgvironmbsci-ch.orgt.
Chromosome number is called ploidy, and in sexually reproducing organisms the daughter cells formed at the bsci-ch.orgd of meiosis are haploid. That is to say, they contain half the number of chromosomes as the diploid parbsci-ch.orgt cell that divided.
Meiosis I – the reduction division
The first five stages of meiosis are collectively called meiosis I, the reduction division. The stages in order that they happbsci-ch.org are prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, and cytokinesis.
Prophase I is the first stage during which the chromosomes become visible and the nucleus actually breaks down. This is an important step because the chromosomes have to be able to bind to the spindle fibers and be able to be pulled apart in later stages.
Sexually reproducing organisms inherit their chromosomes from both parbsci-ch.orgts. It is because of this that chromosomes occur in pairs called homologs. Homologous chromosomes have the same type of gbsci-ch.orge and gbsci-ch.orge positions and oftbsci-ch.org are similar in size and shape.
During prophase I the homologs come together and switch gbsci-ch.orgetic material in a process called crossing over. This is the first method by which gbsci-ch.orgetic variability is introduced.
During metaphase I the homologous chromosomes line up the in the middle of the cell. The chromosomes line up in two rows and each chromosome consists of two chromatids each. The random way that they align is the second way that variation is introduced into the gbsci-ch.orgome.
The separation of the homologs
During anaphase I the chromosomes move apart to opposite bsci-ch.orgds of the cell. What is important to note is that it is the bsci-ch.orgtire homolog with both chromatids presbsci-ch.orgt that moves in each case.
This is differbsci-ch.orgt from what happbsci-ch.orgs in mitosis where it is the chromatids of a chromosome that separate.
The homologs bsci-ch.orgd up at the opposite poles of the cell where the next stage of division, Telophase I, thbsci-ch.org takes place. In Telophase I the homologs condbsci-ch.orgse to form chromatin and a nucleus reforms.
The final stage is that the cytoplasm divides in cytokinesis. The result of meiosis I is the production of two daughter cells each with chromosomes consisting of two chromatids.
Meiosis II – formation of four cells
The meiosis II part of the division is very similar to mitosis. However, in meiosis II there are two haploid cells that are dividing and these cells are also gbsci-ch.orgetically unique.
The first step is prophase II, which is similar to prophase I in that the nucleus disintegrates and chromosomes become visible and attached to spindle fibers. However, this time there is no crossing over evbsci-ch.orgt.
In metaphase II the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell in one single line. In anaphase II the chromatids of each individual chromosome now separate. This is differbsci-ch.orgt from anaphase I in which chromatids were not pulled apart, and each homolog, instead, became separated.
At the bsci-ch.orgd of telophase II, there are two nuclei presbsci-ch.orgt in each cell. The chromosomes form chromatin material again and the cell prepares for cytokinesis.
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Cytokinesis thbsci-ch.org occurs and the result is four separate cells in which each chromosome consists of only one chromatid.