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Introduction

The brain consists that the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. Acquisition up the bulk of the brain space is the cerebrum. The cerebrum controls somatosensory, motor, language, cognitive thought, memory, emotions, hearing, and vision. The cerebrum is split into the left and right hemispheres through a deep longitudinal fissure; the two hemispheres stay in contact and communication with one an additional by the body callosum. Every hemisphere more subdivides right into a frontal, parietal, occipital, and also temporal lobe. Every lobe tote out various functions.


Structure and Function

The surface of the cerebrum is recognized as the cortex. That is around two-millimeter-thick and has plenty of folds creating ridges (gyri) and grooves (sulci). A fissure is a depth grove and is often used interchangeably with sulcus. The cerebrum is separated into a left and also right hemisphere by a longitudinal fissure that goes by many different names: longitudinal fissure, cerebral fissure, typical longitudinal fissure, interhemispheric fissure. Each cerebral hemisphere divides into four separate lobes by a main sulcus, parieto-occipital sulcus, and lateral fissure. The central sulcus runs posterior-medial come anterior-lateral and also separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe. The parieto-occipital sulcus separates the parietal lobe indigenous the occipital lobe. The lateral fissure (Sylvian fissure) is a laterally located horizontal fissure and also separates the temporal lobe native the frontal and also parietal lobe.   

Frontal Lobe

The frontal lobe is anterior come the main sulcus and superior come the lateral fissure. The frontal lobe more divides right into a superior, middle, and inferior frontal gyrus, primary motor cortex, and orbital area. These areas combine come controls our executive and motor functions. The controls judgment, problem-solving, planning, behavior, personality, speech, writing, speaking, concentration, self-awareness, and intelligence. The main motor cortex is current in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe and is positioned automatically anterior to the central sulcus. The premotor cortex is anterior to the main motor cortex. This area controls the contralateral body and also extremity movement. The medial region controls the reduced extremity. The superior-lateral region controls the upper extremity and also hand. The lateral region controls the face. Particular body parts are more richly innervated therefore does not proportionally represent the human body. In fact, the majority of the major motor cortex is used to finely control the muscle the the hands, face, and also lips, which is well represented by the homunculus model. Within the middle frontal gyrus is the frontal eye field area and is mainly responsible for the contralateral eye abduction and ipsilateral eye adduction. Broca"s area is responsible because that speech and also is not current in both hemispheres. Instead, the is in ~ the worse frontal gyrus that the dominant hemisphere. The dominant hemisphere, in most individuals, is the left hemisphere. Therefore, Broca"s area is most typical in the left worse frontal gyrus.<1>  

Parietal Lobe

The parietal lobe is posterior to the central sulcus and anterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus. This lobe controls perception and also sensation. The main somatosensory cortex is in the postcentral gyrus and is positioned automatically posterior to the main sulcus. The primary somatosensory cortex controls the sense of touch, temperature, and pain the the contralateral body. Mirroring the primary motor cortex, the medial region senses the lower extremity, superior-lateral region sense the top extremity and hand, and also the lateral an ar senses the face. Comparable to the major motor area, the hands, face, and lips take up the majority of the somatosensory area and are additionally well gift by the homunculus model. Damages to the parietal lobe can current with a lack of these sensations and other symptoms depending upon whether the dominant or nondominant hemisphere is aside from that damage. Damages to the dominant parietal lobe, normally the left hemisphere, existing with agraphia, acalculia, finger agnosia, and also left-right disorientation. The presentation of these symptoms is characteristic of Gerstmann Syndrome.<2> Damage to the nondominant parietal lobe, generally the appropriate hemisphere, current with agnosia of the contralateral side of the civilization - this is also called hemispatial ignore syndrome.  

Occipital Lobe

The occipital lobe is posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and also superior to the tentorium cerebelli. This lobe interprets vision, distance, depth, color, and also facial recognition. The occipital lobe receive its details from the contralateral vision field of both eye (i.e., the left occipital lobe receives and interprets info from the best visual ar from both the left and right eye).<3> 

Temporal Lobe

The temporal lobe is worse to the lateral fissure and also further divides right into a superior, middle, and also inferior temporal gyrus. This lobe controls language comprehension, hearing, and memory. Wernicke"s area is responsible because that language comprehension, and it not discovered in both hemispheres. Comparable to Broca"s area, Wernicke"s area is in the remarkable temporal gyrus that the dominant hemisphere, which is normally the left hemisphere. Therefore, the place of Wernicke"s area is most commonly in the superior temporal gyrus. The primary auditory cortex is in the premium temporal gyrus and processes most auditory information from the contralateral ear and some indigenous the ipsilateral ear. The temporal lobe communicates through the hippocampus and amygdala to type memories.

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Nerves that take trip to and from the mind consist of dendrites, a cell body, axon, and also axon terminal. Grey matter is typically used interchangeably through the cortex. However, the grey matter implies the axons that space not myelinated appear grey. Grey matter deserve to be uncovered in deep structures, as well. Below the cortex sits white matter, which suggests that axons are myelinated and appear white. White matter receives and send signal to and from the mind and allows for communication between different part of the brain quickly because of their myelinated axons. The grey issue of the cortex interprets signals got from different parts that the body and then sends out a solution signal.